INCIDENCE OF ASPERGILLUS STRAINS AND OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN CEREALS IN SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA PUBLISHEDCristina Tabuc, Ciprian Stroia, Alina Neacşu
Cereals are the most exposed substrates exposed to the micromycetes attack. The development of moulds determinates changes of the physical (aspect, taste, and odour) and chemical (degradation of the nutritive substances and the diminishing of the food product quality). In optimal conditions of temperature and humidity moulds can synthesize toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) with serious consequences on animal and human health. SCOOP projects done for the evaluation of the humans’ exposure to mycotoxins have shown that Aspergillus species and the mycotoxins synthesised by them are rarely found in Europe. Rarely there was reported the presence of B1 aflatoxin in Italy and Spain following some extremely hot summers. Romania wasn’t included in these studies because has become member of the European Union later. The researches realised on cereals coming from south-east Romania show the constant presence of Aspergillus species and of the aflatoxins in this region of the country. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the presence of the Aspergillus species in the cereals collected from different areas of Banat regions and to determinate the concentration of the B1 aflatoxine. There were investigated 56 cereals samples (corn, wheat, barley, and oat) collected from different areas of Banat. Fungal contamination degree was realised using the direct determination method for the total number of fungi colonies, and the mycotoxins concentration was determined with the immune-enzymatic method ELISA. From the species of Aspergillus are associated, mainly to the hot areas, our researches are effectuated on cereals collected from the south-west of the country were evidenced the presence of the species from this genus in more then 80% from the studied samples. The most frequent species identified there was Aspergillus flavus (55%), and then A. niger (40%) and other species: A. fumigatus, A. versicolor and A. parasiticus. Mycologic analysis is confirmed by our results obtained from the analysis of the cereals originating from the south-east of the country. Regarding the presence of B1 aflatoxine, this mycotoxine was identified in about 30% from samples (mainly corn), and the determined concentrations were small, lower then 5 µg/kg, the maximal level allowed by EU. The results obtained are similar with the ones obtained in previous researches done in the south-east of the country regarding the mycotic and mycotoxicologic contamination.
cereals; Aspergillus sp.; Aflatoxine B1; Ochratoxin A