CONVERTING FROM CONVENTIONAL TO ORGANIC VITICULTURE IN MINIS-MADERAT VINEYARD PUBLISHEDEva Băra, Simona Florentina Barbu
Organic viticulture in our country is at the beginning, observing vine technology is currently growing a very large number of synthetic chemicals: fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers. However all these substances undo even the concept of organic viticulture. Without soil protection, vines can not provide healthy wines and grapes, organic quality. Active biological control of soil favors a balanced nutrition, rich in humus and mineral elements required for the plants development. Knowing the results of using synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides it is necessary to know, through mass media, enough of the soil protection laws. In EU countries this protection laws were well highlighted and firmly applied. Converting from conventional viticulture to organic viticulture is a dynamic process of creating a sustainable and self-regulating system. This issue is implemented within a longer or shorter period of time, depending on the preexisting chemicalization degree, on the soil pollution, the degree of attack on disease, pests, weed infestation, training and environmental awareness of farmers. The period from year zero until the obtaining of accreditation authorization is called the conversion period which lasts for about 5 years in viticulture, being carried out in 2-3 stages. This is called conversion step by step. It is necessary to underline that organic viticulture achieves lower yields compared to current conventional production system, which generates higher production costs. In compensation to organic wine products, they may be sold with a price 35-45% higher than the other conventional wine products, thus becoming more profitable. Romania’s integration into European Community structures requires adaptation of vine-wine production in our country to the best current quality standards as organic products. Measures have an important role: a rational fertilization of plantations, avoiding nitrogen excess which causes raising vine diseases and pests attack, avoiding deficiencies or excess of potassium, making timely tillage, eliminating by the work in green, of many sources of infection, determining the elements of forecasting and warning based on economic pest thresholds. Benefits of alternatives for biological control of pests and diseases are: it is avoided the use of polluting products, the use of low phytotoxicity products, obtaining crops without chemical treatments, prevention of resistance to pesticides, ensuring human and other creatures health by using cleaner control methods.
organic viticulture; conventional viticulture; a rational fertilization; organic products