STUDY REGARDING THE IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOTOXIGENOUS FUNGI FROM THE SEED MASS OF MAIZE PUBLISHEDHERȚEG Daniela Raluca1, MATYUS Aranka1, COTUNA Otilia1, POP Georgeta1
In the maize crops are present three fungi species from the genus Fusarium that produces micromicotoxins. First is Fusarium verticillioides sin. Fusarium moniliforme. The sexuate form of this fungus is Gibberella moniliformis known also as Gibberella fujikuroi. It is the fungus that produces the micromicotoxin “fumonisine”. Fumonisine is often produced in field, but also it can be formed in the stored maize. The second fungus is Fusarium proliferatum implied also in the production of “fumonisine” and the third fungus is Fusarium graminearum that synthesises the micromicotoxins "trichotecen" and “zearalenon”. The perfect form is Gibberella zeae. With the Fusarium species, in the maize crops can appear the fungus Aspergillus flavus too, major producer of mycotoxins names mycotoxins. Thus, if in the past was known that the fungi from Aspergillus genus attacks the maize during storage, nowadays is known that the infection appears in the maize crops in field. In the last years this fungus was present in the maize crops from Romania. The appearance of the fungus in the corn fields leads to the formation of the aflatoxins before harvesting. The implication of the mycotoxins in the quality and security of the plant products is recognized there being necessary their monitoring. The mentioned fungi cause problems in the dry years because it develops very well when the weather is hot during the night and dry during the day. Hail, drought, early frozen and the injuries caused by insects favour the infection. In the year 2015 there were isolated from maize seeds species of mycotoxigenous fungi together with other species pathogeniconly. During this research the isolation of fungi was done from the maize seeds sampled from a grain store from Semlac (Arad).The isolation was realised from the maize seeds’ surface. On the seeds’ surface from the wet chambers were developed fungi from the genera: Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Helminthosporium. Predominant was growing the mycelium of Fusarium graminearum species. The obtained results show that the seeds fungal contamination rate (SCI) with micotoxigenous fungi was 44.33% for Fusarium graminearum and 4.33% for Aspergillus flavus.
Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, contamination, maize, mycotoxins, seeds.