Vol 45, No 3 (2013)
COVER pag. 1-1USAMVB
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciencemore abstract
THE RESULTS OF TESTING THE HARVESTING DEVICE WORK QUALITY OF THE COMBINES ZMAJ 133 AND CLAAS DOMINATOR 48 pag. 3-9S. BARAĆ, M. BIBERDŽIĆ, A. VUKOVIĆ, A. ĐIKIĆ, Bojana MILENKOVIĆ
One of the main characteristics of combine harvesters is to harvest out crops in one pass, while collecting grains from the field and separating from impurities and straw (material other than grain - MOG), which are being taken back to the field, while the quality of the work varies. The content of impurities, a plain and broken kernels, is not desirable in seed neither in the mercantile grains using in further processing, because it significantly complicates cleaning and storing of grains, and significantly reducing the quality of the product and it’s market value. Harvesting device of combines with the traditional scheme of threshing TTO (drum cross-transversal, grain mass flow goes tangentially and straw-shakers oscillatory separate grains), is limiting factor in the combines work , with increasing speed increases the flow of grain mass, increasing losses and impurities in the mass after harvest. The quality of the work is influenced by numerous factors: moisture content, grain-straw ratio, yield levels, compliance of the peripheral speed of underdrum-drum and it’ spacing, setting sieves, fan speed, mode of working speed. In cases where these parameters are not properly aligned, performance is significantly distorts, so that a high content of impurities in harvested mass.This paper presents the results of exploitation research of the working quality of harvesting devices of combines ZMAJ 133 and CLAAS D48 in harvesting of rye and triticale in agroecological conditions of Kosovo and Metohia. The objective of our study was to determine the quality of the separation devices of the combines, the contents of the whole healthy, broken, a plain grains and other impurities. Quality threshed mass was determined by taking samples of threshed mass from the combine’s bunker, and percentage of healthy, full, broken kernels and impurities have been determined later in the laboratory. It has been applied standard methodology, which refers to the field and laboratory testing, as well as exploitation testing of the combines. Based on these results, it was concluded higher quality work of the threshing device CLAAS D48 in relation to the harvester ZMAJ 133B. In the harvested mass at the combine CLAAS D48, it has been measured the highest content of the whole grains and the average was 97.10%, the lowest has been measured in the combine ZMAJ 133B to 92.19%. The contents of broken grains varied in the range of 0.91% (CLAAS D48 ) to 2.53% (ZMAJ 133B).more abstract
Combine, quality, threshing device, cleaning, rye, triticale .
CARABUS (MORPHOCARABUS) HAMPEI TELEKII CSIKI 1937 AND CARABUS (MORPHOCARABUS) ROTHI ROTHI DEJEAN 1829 IN NORTHERN BANAT pag. 10-18J. BARLOY, F. PRUNAR, Frederique BARLOY-HUBLER, S. DREANO, Oana Maria IOJA-BOLDURA
In the North Banat coexist in the same stations and biotopes two species of the genus Morphocarabus attributed to C. (Morphocarabus) hampei telekii Csikii 1937 and C. (Morphocarabus) rothi rothi Dejean 1829. On the left bank of the Mureș River, the restricted area of tthese species distribution is situated from Groși – Căpâlnaș in the East until Pojoga - Tisa in the West. Beyond this perimeter, the researches remained fruitless. The cohabitation of these two species seems to be a unique case, not found in Transylvania, region with habitat type of C. (Morphocarabus) rothi rothi Dejean 1829. For lack of relevant morphological characters, the distinction between both aforesaid species is difficult. The absence of the 5-th primary interval at hampei telekii and the presence of the quadricatenatus Kraatz 1878 which is a rothi form with sculpture near to hampei put in doubt the existence of two species. As telekii and rothi have elytral sculpture with four primary intervals, S ZEL G. (2007) has attached hampei telekii to rothi. For the mixed population from Pojoga, the morphological and morphometric criteria are insufficient to distinguish telekii by rothi. The examination of an important effective of hampei telekii type individuals, point out that 4% of insects have an elytral sculpture with 5 primary intervals. The mitochondrial DNA comparison, NADPH gene, subunit 5, provides a clear distinction between the hampei and rothi types. The population of rothi from Pojoga also has a polymorphism which brings closer some individuals to those from Transylvania (origin Danes near Sighișoara). This study confirms the suspected presence of two species (C. (Morphocarabus) hampei telekii Csikii 1937 and C. (Morphocarabus) rothi rothi Dejean 1829) in the prospected area. Two problems remain posed = that of the relationships with rothi populations from Transylvania and that of the possible crossbreeding between hampei telekii and rothi, difficult to identify using the mtDNA at maternal heredity.more abstract
carabus, hampei telekii, rothi, taxonomy, morphology, inventory, mapping.
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a perennial forage crop which can be used for grazing, or as hay, silage and a component in combination with leguminous crops. When seed production is considered, a special attention ought to be paid to weed control in the founding year. Grassy weeds represent a particular problem for spring tall fescue crops, because it is not recommendable to prevent weeds during the spring sowing. This study was aimed to identify weed species and number during the founding year of tall fescue crop. For that reason, a field trial was set at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops in Kruševac, during 2007. The investigated cultivar of tall fescue was K-20. The applied herbicides in the trial were the following: Lentemul (2,4 D), Banvel (dicamba), Galbenon (bentazon) and Boss (clopyralid). The trial was set in random complete block design with four replications. Number of weed species was determined per square meter and herbicide efficiency degree was established according to Dodel. Results obtained in this study showed that in tall fescue crop were observed twenty weed species, as annual as perennial ones, with their average total number of 21.2 individuals/m 2 . Annual weed species were most abundant (13 individuals/m 2 ). The highest frequency of appearance showed Matricaria chamomilla (3.63 individuals//m 2 ), Cirsium arvense (3.52 individuals//m 2 ) and Chenopodium album (2.60 individuals/m 2 ). The greatest coefficient of efficiency (83.62) was reached by the herbicide Boss, and the lowest one (64.46) by the herbicide Lentemul. The best prevention effect on annual weed species was shown by the herbicide Boss (86.6), but the herbicide Banvel was the best in preventing perennial weeds (92.6). However, in order to reach higher forage yields and better forage quality, it is necessary to kill weeds in the year of tall fescue crop founding, and also during further exploitation of tall fescue crop. Results of this study point to a necessity of chemical protection measures for an efficient weed control in tall fescue crop.more abstract
tall fescue, weeds, herbicides, coefficient of efficiency
THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND VARIETY ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TRITICALE pag. 24-29M. BIBERDŽIĆ, M. JELIĆ, B. KNEŽEVIĆ, S. BARAĆ, G. MAKSIMOVIĆ, Dragana LALEVIĆ
Grain yield and quality reached by small grains are variable and affected by many factors, primarily by genotype, agroecological conditions and the applied production technology. Triticale is a plant species with high genetic potential for yield and favorable nutritional values, so it is consideredas promising. For achieving high and stable yields, it’s necessary to have favorable agroclimatic conditions of the locality, variety and advanced agricultural techniques, with a special turn to fertilizing. In this paper is given a review how agroclimatic conditions of the locality and variety influence on some morphological and productive characteristics of triticale. The experiment included two localities with different agroclimatic conditions, as well as two varieties of triticale (KG-20 and Tango). The experiment was set up as block system with three repetitions. Results were processed by analysis of variance. Applied cultural operations during the triticale growing were standard, with using of NPK 80:80:60 fertilizers. Investigations were carried out in Centre for Agricultural and Technological Results of the investigation showed significant influence of the locality on plant’s height, spike’s length, and number of grains in spike, grain’s mass per spike and yield of grains in triticale. All these characteristics had higher values in locality of Zajechar than in locality of Kraljevo. Variety Tango, in both localities, had significantly higher values of the investigated parameters than variety KG-20. The average yield for both varieties, the locality Zajecar was 6.40 t ha -1 , and the location of Kraljevo 5.16 t ha -1 , a difference of 1.24 t ha -1 . Higher yields on the locality Zaječar very significantly higher than at the locality of Kraljevo. Variety Tango, in locality of Zajechar , had about 0.9 t ha -1 higher yield than variety KG-20, while in locality of Kraljevo that difference was only 1.05 t ha -1 in favor of variety Tango. These differences are result of favorable climatic and soil conditions in locality of Zajechar in regard to locality of Kraljevo. These results are evidence for importance and role of agroclimatic factors and variety in expression of productive characteristics oftriticale.more abstract
triticale, morphological characteristics, productive characteristics, locality, agroclimatic conditions
INFLUENCE OF THE RESISTENCE TO PENETRATION AND SHEARING ON THE EXECUTION STEPS OF THE HOLES FOR PLANTING SAPLINGS pag. 30-37N. BOJA, F. BOJA, A. DARAU
The present research displays the results obtained after the digging of holes for planting saplings in a previously unprepared soil, following the steps to carry them out according to some physical-mechanical properties of the soil. The research was carried out on a horizontal ground in the Forest District Iuliu Moldovan, in two forest compartments 31 C and 32 A, in a previously unprepared ground, on two types of soil: gley-soil (the muddy subtype) and alluvial soil (the vertical-gleyed subtype), and in Forest District Radna, forest compartment 74, on a brown typically luvic soil, using the Stihl BT 121 motto-borer with a 200 mm drill. The objectives of the research were to make a comparative determination, on different types of soil, of the qualitative parameters, among which the most important ones are: degree of loosening of the soil taken and left in the hole, resistance to penetration, resistance to shearing, timing of drilling holes, using the Stihl BT 121 motto-borer in order to establish its technical efficiency.In order to observe the influence which the drilling of holes has on its walls, we measured the resistance to penetration and resistance to shearing every 10 cm at a 30 cm depth, the proper depth for planting small-sized saplings, on two opposing sides, so that we could get the most probable values of these physical-mechanical properties of the soil. After taking the measures in order to establish the compaction degree of the wall and of the bottom of the hole by the borer in that interval, it was judged that in conditions of normal humidity, if the borers have sharp knives and are well conceived and executed from a technical point of view, there are no big values of the resistance to penetration which could affect the subsequent development of the saplings. The usefulness of the present paper stays in the research data collected, processed, analyzed and valorized in order to offer a pertinent study material, which could indeed be used by specialists in designing the process for obtaining, through a mechanized means, the holes for planting small-sized saplings on a horizontal ground, using the Stihl BT 121 motto- borer.more abstract
motto-borer, resistance to penetration, average time of drilling, degree of scattering, degree of evacuation.
RESULTS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF GENETIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON YIELD COMPONENTS AT SPRIG WHEAT pag. 38-43S. BRĂILEANU, I. RACZ, M. DUDA, ROZALIA KADAR
The aim of our experience is to improve the cultivation technology of spring wheat through the accumulation of new knowledge that contributes to the scientific and practice basis by using the best spring varieties, which correlated by the number of sowing seed at square meter and rational fertilizing lead to increasing qualitative and quantitative production, within the limits of economic efficiency and protecting environment. In order to achieve the proposed objectives, it was organized a three factorial experience, 3A ( variety ) x 3B ( number of sowing seeds ) x 3C ( doze of fertilizers ) being taken into study three factors with 3 replications. The tested varieties were: Pădureni (from Romania), GK Marcius and GK Tavasz (from Hungary). Number of sowing seeds were: 250 g.s./m 2 , 375 g.s/m 2 and 500g.s./m 2 . They were used the following doze of fertilizers: N 70 P 70 K 0 , N 100 P 100 +foliar, N 120 P 120 K 0 . The paper presents the yields components on spring wheat: number of fertile tillers/plant, number of fertile spikelets/spike, number of grain /spike, thousand kernel weight (TKW). This study allow to us putting out of the phenomena that takes place during growing season and different influences of research factors on yield.more abstract
number of grains/spike, spring wheat, TKW, weight of grains/spike.
RESEARCH REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF FRUITS’ SIZE AND AGE ON CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L. GERMINATION FEATURES pag. 44-48Evodia BUBOI IGNAT, Gheorghe DAVID
For the study performed by us Sandra seeds have been used, type of seeds cultivated in our country since 1987, in all areas favorable to this species. Among other morphologic characteristics, we have studied the influence of the mass of one thousand seeds over the energy and the germination capacity and also over the breakthrough capacity. The variants taken into account have been the seed having thousand seeds mass under 6 grams and those over 7 grams. Seed from the harvest of 2012 and also 3- years old and 6-years old seeds have been used in the study. Determinations regarding the germination energy and capacity have been performed using Polikeit – Halle germinator, at 25 0 – 28 0 C, repeated four times, and for the determination of the breakthrough power we have used ceramic recipients of 10 cm diameter and 15 cm height. Sand has been used as germination bed, humidified at 60-70% of the maximum water capacity. Determination of the germination energy has been performed after 7 days, determination of the germination capacity after 14 days, and of the breakthrough power after 16 days. The results of the determinations regarding the germination energy have revealed average values ranging from 56.7% at the 6-years old materials to 71.7% in the case of the 2012 harvest material. The germination capacity has ranged between 85.2% at the witness variant (seeding material form 2012) to 77.4% at the 3-years old material and to 67.4% at the 6-years old material.The breakthrough power has been assessed after 16 days and, depending on the age of the seed, the values ranged from 69.6% for the witness material to 62.3% for the 3-years old seeds and only 51.8% to the 6-years old material. The thousand seeds mass has influenced the analyzed physiological characteristics, the values being higher for the seeds having thousand seeds mass over 7 grams, compared to the values for seeds having this feature under 6 grams. The results of the study have revealed that the seeding material obtained in 2012 is 1 st class, and the 3-years and the 6-years old lots are included in the 2 nd class. In conclusion for the Sandra type, only seed from the latest harvest shall be used.more abstract
Coriandrum sativum, seeds’ germination
STUDIES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME SULFUR FERTILIZERS UPON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEX, CROP QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF SUNFLOWER pag. 49-52D. CAMEN, R. ŞUMĂLAN, Laura SUCIU, Ioana POPESCU, Brigitta SCHMIDT, S. GASPAR, M. HORABLAGA, F. VILIGA, Carmen BEINŞAN, Mariana BABAU, J. C. YVIN, Giancarla VELICEVICi, Renata ŞUMĂLAN
The purpose of this experiment was to test the influence of some sulfur based fertilizers on some physiological, production and quality characteristics in maize. A sunflower cultivar (Performer) was used and two fertilizing variants were applied: N-P-K 15-15-15 – 60 kg/ha –netto K (400 kg fertilizer/ha- brutto), V1 - 7-0-20-6-2 + 40 (N-P-K – MgO – Na – SO3) – 60 kg/ha-netto K (300 kg fertilizer/ha- brutto). The main physiological indexes followed were the chlorophyll content, the foliar surface, the substance percent, but the productivity and some quality characteristics of the grain were determined: protein, lipid and starch content. The experiment has shown that in both fertilization variants for sunflower, the recorded production level was satisfying, taking into account the specific climatic conditions.more abstract
sunflower, sulf fertilizer, crop quantity, quality
RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME SULFUR FERTILIZERS UPON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEX, CROP QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF MAIZE pag. 53-57D. CAMEN, R. ŞUMĂLAN, Laura SUCIU, Ioana POPESCU, Brigitta SCHMIDT, S. GASPAR, M. HORABLAGA, F. VILIGA, Carmen BEINŞAN, Mariana BABAU, J. C. YVIN, Giancarla VELICEVICI, Renata ŞUMĂLAN
The goal of this experiment was to tested the influence of some sulfur based fertilizers on some physiologica index, production and quality characteristics in maize. Sulfur is involved in protein synthesis in chloroplasts, sulfur amino acids, photosynthesis and glutathione products having a role in redox reactions. Sulfur catalyzes chlorophyll biosynthesis. In the absence of sulfur, leaves are chlorotic with pale veins. A sunflower hybrid was used (KWS 2376 - FAO 370) and two fertilizing variants were applied: : N-P-K (20-20-0) – 228 kg fertilizer/ha- brutto - 45,6 kgN/ha active compound, V1 N-P-K – MgO – Na – SO3 (23-0-5-5-1 + 22) – 198,4 kg fertilizer/ha-brutto- 45,6 kgN/ha active compound. The second application of fertilization was realized in phenophase BBCH 4.7 (vegetative stage), to complete the nitrogen application to 130 kg of active substance per hectare, with 283 kg/ha NH 4 NO 3 at control plots and 246 kg/ha NH 4 NO 3 in V 1 variant plots.The experiment was located the Experimental Teaching Resort at USAMVB Timisoara on a total surface of 2016 m2 , in plots of 504 m2 and having 4 repetitions (GPS coordinates Lat/Long: 45,782; 21,211 Timisoara, Romania). Measurements of plant physiological features were realized in three different development stages: Stage of 7-10 leaves (vegetative stage), BBCH 4.7; Flowering stage, BBCH 6.5;Ripening, dough stage, BBCH 8.5.In these stages we measured the total leaf area of plants (cm 2 /pl.), the dry matter and chlorophyll content of leaves. Also the quantity and quality (starch, protein, lipid and humidity content - OMEG ANALYZER G BRUINS INSTRUMENTS) of crop was assessed. Regarding the quality of maize kernels, we assessed the following characters: water, protein, starch and lipid content. Results show that there are no statistically significant differences between the experimental variants. The experiment has shown that the variant fertilized with sulfur has obtained a significant production increment in comparison to the witness variant.more abstract
maize, sulf fertilizer, crop quantity, crop quality
PLANTAGO MEDIA L. GERMINATION RESPONSE pag. 58-63Luminiţa COJOCARIU, N. M. HORABLAGA , Adina HORABLAGA, A. COJOCARIU, Despina- Maria BORDEAN, Aurica BOROZAN, C. BOSTAN, C. RUJAN
The aim of the paper is to study the germination response of Plantago media seeds, collected from their natural growth environment in order to identify the weaknesses and threats regarding the conservation of this species in grassland habitats from the piedmont areas near Zărand Mountains. The biologic material was represented by Plantago media L. seeds, collected in September from grasslands found at 617 m altitude.We assessed the potential of Plantago media seeds to produce normal plants in a wide range of field conditions. For that, we used the test “top of paper” (TP) in two variants: ITP – temperature 20°C, humidity 90%, with light, without special treatments and IITP at an alternating temperature 20-30°C, humidity 90%, with light, with precooling at 10 C° for five days. Our studies revealed that the highest percentage of normal Plantago media seedlings appeared 21 days after the seeds had been placed for germination (ITP and IITP). The maximum germination (65%) was recorded in variant IITP, when Plantago media seeds were kept at 10° C for 5 days, and then subjected to high humidity (90%) and alternating temperature (20-30°C), with light. The mathematical model used suggests that variant IITP (top of paper) indicates the potential of Plantago media seeds to germinate in early spring on cold and humid soils in Zărand Mountains, where this species was identified and from where we took the seeds for analysis. In the area under analysis, species Plantago media L. is not under any survival risk.more abstract
germination, top of paper test, Plantago media L., grassland habitat, Zărand Mountains.
THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILISATION ON THE AVERAGE DRY MATTER YIELD OF PERMANENT GRASSLAND FROM BANAT (ROMANIA) HILL REGION pag. 64-70M.COMAN, A.MOISUC, Carmen DURĂU
In this study the objective was to determine the dry matter content of the permanent grasslands under the influence of mineral and organic fertilizers. Experimental field is located on a low hill meadow used as permanent grassland in Fibiş village (Timis County). In the year 2011 the average of the annual rainfall amount is 484 mm. On the season, the precipitation is rich in summer (30.7%), followed by spring (25.1%), fall (23.9%), and winter with less precipitation (20.3%). The experimental field was organized by setting 10 fertilisation variants ( 3 organic,3 mineral and 3 organic – mineral fertilisation variants) and a control non-fertilised variant. Every studied variant has three replicates. The data are collected during 2010-2012 period. The analyzed samples were weighed in the field using a portable electronic. Determination of dry matter was achieved by drying stove method.This method is based on determining the loss of mass by heating at a temperature of 105 o, until constant mass. The protocol was done according to the method AOAOC 93015 (Edition 15/1990). Resides obtained after drying in the oven is the amount of forage dry matter. Statistically speaking, the dry matter yields highly significant positive results in organic fertilization variant fertilized with sheep manure 40 tons per hectare(V3). The organo-mineral fertilization have results very significant at the variant fertilized with 20 t sheep manure / ha + 50 kg / ha N + 50 kg / ha P 2 O 5 + 50 kg / ha K 2 O (V7). The chemical fertilization have results very significant at the variant fertilized with (100 +100) kg/ha N 50 kg / ha P 2 O 5 50 kg/ha 50 kg /ha K 2 O (V10). The dry matter yields need long time researches, to provide sustainable resultsmore abstract
dry matter, permanent grasslands, fertilisation
The examination of new soil use methods started in 1997, at the University of Debrecen CAAES RISF Karcag Research Institute. Our goal was to prevent and reduce the soil degradation processes in Karcag. A lot of areas in this microregion are occupied by the “minute soils“, which can be characterized by a very short period for optimal cultivation due to their unfavourable hydrological features and heavy texture. Any tillage operations applied out of this optimal period involve the risk of soil degrading effects. The cumulative effect of the past improper operations has resulted in formation of a physically degraded and dusty cultivated layer. The consequences of the structural degradation of the soil: unfavourable hydrological features, decreased nutrition supply capacity, moderated microbiological activity effects of soil protective cultivation technologies – involving direct seeding and residue management – on the soil, crop and economy of production are examined in a multiple long-term field experiment on a heavy textured soil. In lysimeters the correlation of water supply, soil moisture content and water use efficiency of crops was revealed too. We also measured the tractive power demand, the moisture content, the penetration resistance, and the CO 2 emission of the soil in the two cultivation systems. It was established that the CO 2 -emission from the soil cultivated with the soil conservation technology was significantly higher in the most cases compared to conventional tillage system based on ploughing. Measuring CO 2 -emission, the most important (from agricultural point of view) characteristic of the soil can be directly quantified. According to the research achievements of the first sixteen years of the experiment the applied treatments have not always significantly influenced the yield of the indicator crop (winter wheat), but considerably decreased the energy consumption and costs of cultivation.more abstract
Soil Protective Cultivation System, reduced tillage, winter wheat, CO 2 emission, penetration resistance, , lysimeters, GIS interpretation.
BEHAVIOR OF SUNFLOWER RP 64 F 50 AND RP 64 A 89 HIBRIDS IN PIEMONTS AREA FROM SOUTHERN BANAT pag. 81-85Gh.DAVID, A BORCEAN
Extension of areas cultivated with sunflower within our country during the last decade to over 800 ths. Ha and up to over 1 million Ha in 1999, as consequence of the high demand on the internal and external market, is representing a real danger. This is due to the fact that the 6-7 years return period for the same lot can no more be observed. Such a return period is required due to the continuance in the soil of the several pathogen agents as Plasmopara helianthi Novot, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary, Sclerotinia bataticola Taub. Research has been performed on a brown luvic soil. The precursory culture has been wheat. The experiments have been tri-factorial, factor A has been the cultivated hybrid (a 1 – RP64F50 –; a 2 PR64A89, factor B – the agricultural fond (b 1 – N 50 P 100 K 100 ; b 2 – N 100 P 100 K 100 ), and factor C cultivation density (c 1 – 45.000 plants/ha; c 2 -50.000 plants/ha). Experiences have been performed during the experimental cycle 2010-2012. The studied hybrids have genetic strength to blight attacks (Plasmopara helianthi), species 304, already existing in our country. These hybrids are tolerant to Phomopsis and Sclerotinia, resistant to fall and breakage, resistant to dryness and heat, highly productive and having high content of oil. The crop results are revealing the superiority of PR64A89 hybrid that has overcome by 9% the crop of PR64F50.nIncreasing of nitrogen dose from N 50 to N 100 on the constant usage of P 100 K 100 has increased the crop by 14%. Increasing the density from 45,000 to 50,000 plants/ha has lead to crop decreasing by 12%. Thousand seeds mass has been negatively influenced by increasing the density, on both fertilization levels, on both hybrids, oscillating between 58 and 61 g. at PR64F50 hybrid and between 60 and 65 g to PR64SA89 hybrid. A similar tendency has been manifested and the hectoliter mass has been situated between 43 – 45 kg/hl at PR64F50 and between 38-43 kg/hl at PR64A89. The content of oil in PR64F50 hybrid has decreased following the doubling of nitrogen dose from 45 to 42% and to PR64A89 46-44 %.more abstract
sunflower, technological links
RESULTS OBTAINED AT OENOTHERA BIENNIS L. REGARDING THE CONTENT AND PRODUCTION OF OIL AND DETERMINATION OF LINOLEIC ACID, OLEIC ACID IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION pag. 86-93Adina HORABLAGA, Valeriu TABARA, Gabriela POPESCU, M.N. HORABLAGA
The Evening star (Oenothera biennis L.) is being commonly named as “the king that cures everything” and represented an important element in folk medicine after 1916, after having been sent to Europe. The experiments have been set up in Câmpia Banatului, inTimiş County more precisely (U.S.A.M.V.B. territory in Timişoara) on a cambic chernozem type of soil and in Bihor county, more precisely in Depresiunea Beiuşului, on a clay loam soil type. Researches have been carried out during 2011-2012, in two sowing periods: the third decade of March and the third decade of October, and with three levels of fertilization with organic manure i.e. N 50 , N 100 , N 150 . The purpose of the research was to determine the content in oil, the oil production and the content of the two unsaturated fatty acids, in organic culture. The oil content was negatively influenced by organic fertilizers, these increased oil production by 46 kg/ha at the doses level of N 50 and by 50.5 kg/ha at the doses level of N 150. At the variant fertilized with N 50 there was an oil production increase by 47% and 46 kg/ha respectively. By increasing the dose of nitrogen at N 150 , the increase in oil production was of 52%, production rose by 50,5 kg/ha. The sample with the highest content of linoleic and oleic acid was the N 100 (60.28% respectively 10.72%).more abstract
Oil content, oil production, oleic and linoleic acids.
Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important crop plants, with multiple uses in human nutrition, animal feed and in the industry. High corn yields can be obtained by the use of high yield hybrids by using optimal technologies of cultivation of maize and of modern technology of mechanized works. With minimum losses for the harvesting grains, their main objectives are the use of modern requirements and adjusted on the optimum harvesting. The experience was located on an area of 5 hectares on land of Cărpiniş, jud. Timiş. They are 19 varieties of hybrid corn cultivated. The combine harvester was John Deere W550 with corn header for 6 rows. For the determination of samples harvested corn hybrids, are used performance apparatus for measuring and monitoring. Most major productions were obtained from drought-resistant varieties.Cereal harvesting is the fulfillment and the end of the agricultural production process as it is the meeting point of all man’s doings, of all spiritual and material efforts, that the society invested in the agricultural process. This paper presents a comparative study concerning the harvesting of corn hybrids.more abstract
hybrid, harvest, combines harvesters, corn header, and yield
EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT IN LONG-TERM FIELD TRIAL AND VOJVODINA PROVINCE pag. 98-107G. JAĆIMOVIĆ, M. MALEŠEVIĆ, V.AĆIN, B.MARINKOVIĆ, J.CRNOBARAC, Dragana LATKOVIĆ, Branislava LALIĆ, Borivoje PEJIĆ
In order to detect and quantifying drought (its frequency, duration and intensity), Palmer Drought Severity Index and Palmer Moisture Anomaly Z-Index were used in this paper. These indices were calculated by using monthly values of meteorological elements from meteorological station at Rimski Šančevi, Novi Sad, Serbia; for period 1965/66 to 2009/10. Also, yields of winter wheat from stationary long-term field trial, containing 20 different fertilization treatments with increasing doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were analyzed for the same region and period of time. For determining the most suitable index for quantifying effects of drought on wheat yield, correlation coefficients between two examined drought indexes and detrended wheat yields in long-term trial and Vojvodina province were calculated. Larger number of significant correlations was obtained between the wheat yields and Palmer's Z-index. On the basis of calculated r coefficients, it can be concluded that humidity/ drought conditions in October, December, March and April had the most important impact on grain yield. However, correlation coefficients in X and IV were positive, i.e. lower moisture conditions (drought) reduces yields, while in XII and III negative r coefficients indicated increase in yields at low moisture conditions. By observing the r values at different fertilizing variants in long-term experiment, it could be concluded that drought conditions in X and IV influenced all treatments more or less equally. Treatments with higher nitrogen doses were more sensitive to moisture conditions in XII, while in moisture conditions in III more sensitive were treatments without, or with small doses of nitrogen applied.more abstract
drought, drought indices, winter wheat, yield, mineral nutrition, correlations
Natural ecological phenomenon of relationship between organisms that can be used for weed control in all annual and perennial crops is called allelophaty. In the future, as a natural phenomenon it can represent one of the mechanisms in biological weed control measures. During 2011 and 2012, in laboratory conditions allelophatic effect of cold aqueous extracts made of underground and above ground parts of Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Abuthilon theophrasti Med. was studied on germination capability of seeds and beginning growth phases of maize and soybean seed. Laboratory tests were set up in randomized block design in four replications. Tests were set up in four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/l of aqueous extractions from underground part, i.e. root and aboveground parts, i.e. stem and leaf of weed species A. retroflexus L. and A. theophrasti Med. In control variant maize and soybean seeds were sprayed by distilled water. After germination of crop seeds and subsequent treatment by cold aqueous extract made of these weed species, in next five days followed measurements of epicotyls and hypocotyls length of maize and soybean seeds on a daily basis. Before setting up of the test, studies of germination capability of seeds of the chosen maize and soybean crops were performed in climatic chamber under controlled conditions. Inhibiting effect of the applied aqueous extract from underground part of A. theophrasti Med. proved statistically insignificant on soybean hypocotyls growth in all four studied concentrations. Studied cold extract from above ground A. theophrasti Med. showed high inhibiting effect on soybean epicotyls length in all four tested concentrations. Application of cold extract made from underground part of A. retroflexus L. resulted in high allelophatic effect on germination capability of maize seed, as well as in reduction of maize seed hypocotyls length. On the other hand, treatment of maize seed by cold extract from above ground parts resulted in statistically significant effect in the highest concentration, whereas in the remaining three concentrations significant effect to the growth of maize seed epicotyls was not established.more abstract
allelophaty, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Abuthilon theophrasti Med., maize, soybean
In organic and integrated production systems, application of biofertilizers and different species of microorganisms plays an important role, and its activity can influence the increase of total soil fertility, and therefore the yield and quality of safe food products. A two-year research (2011 and 2112) was conducted on the experimental field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, in the Department of organic agriculture and biodiversity in Backi Petrovac site, in order to determine whether different treatments with Azotobacter chroococcum and different concentrations of organic fertilizer Guana have influence on yield and total sugar content in the sweet corn grain. Applied concentrations of Azotobacter and foliar application of Guana did not affect the significant differences in the yield and the moisture of grain, however, significant differences were observed in the total sugar content. Increasing concentrations of Azotobacter resulted in an increase in sugar content. Also, on the average, foliar application of Guana increased the total sugar content for 1.8%.more abstract
sweet corn, sugar content, organic farming, Azotobacter
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE PRODUCTION CAPACITY, SEVERAL LINES OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) UNDER CONDITIONS OF TIMIŞOARA pag. 123-128Simona NIŢĂ, Valeriu TABĂRĂ, Ioana Maria MATEAŞ, Liliana PANAITESCU, Marius LUNGU
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), as an oil plant, has been known since ancient times. It is cultivated in U.S.A., Israel, Morocco, Spain, Italy, France, Pakistan, Tunisia, India, and Australia. Safflower has been cultivated mainly for the edible oil obtained from its seeds. It is mentioned that safflower oil has wide uses in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its purgative and anti-rheumatism effects. It does not result in an increase of the cholesterol level in the blood. Safflower flowers have tonic properties in cough. Pigments of safflower flowers are particularly important because they leave no toxic residues in coloured products. Pigments are synthesised in the root where, during vegetation, they migrate towards leading tissues towards the petals.The oil is used as a remedy for rheumatic pains. Outside the fatty acid content of 32-40% and a percentage seeds contain 11-17% protein and 4-7% water. Carthamine is one of the most valuable non-toxic compounds used in the food industry or in the textiles industry. Results obtained recently in China concern the use of safflower flowers- based medicines with good effects on coronary diseases and on angina pectoris, curing 75.6% of the total patients treated. The incidence of re-occurrence of cardiac crises as well as of side- effects is rarer than in the case of nitro-glycerine-based medicines. In order to reach the goals of our research, we used 4 safflower lines obtained through individual selection from a population of Timişoara.To emphasise the yielding capacity of some new lines of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under study, we organised, in 2012 a bi-factorial experiment in which experimental factors were as follows: Factor A – sowing time - 1 st time MARCH; - 2 nd time APRIL; Factor B – safflower lines -T 9, -T 10, -T 33, -T 40 short line. Research carried out pointed out the impact of sowing time on yield as a result of testing new lines of safflower.more abstract
safflower, lines, yield
INFLUENCE OF SOWING TIME ON ASPECTS OF PRODUCTIVITY IN A FEW LINES OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) IN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN TIMIŞOARA pag. 129-136Simona NIŢĂ, V. TABĂRĂ, Ioana Maria MATEAŞ, Liliana PANAITESCU, M. LUNGU
Safflower was grown for its flowers, used for coloring and flavoring. Safflower name derives from the fact that it was cultivated as a cheaper alternative to saffron. This content carthamin because flowers, like saffron. Safflower flowers have a calming qualities of cough. Pigments from safflower flowers are particularly important because they leave no toxic residues colored products. Pigments which are synthesized in roots during vegetation migrate through tissues leading the petals. Carthamina is one of the most valuable non-toxic compounds used in the food or in the textile industry. The seeds are used to treat tumors, especially those located in the liver. Flowers are considered laxative properties, sedative, and is used to treat scarlet fever. Indicated that safflower oil is widely used in pharmaceutical industry and antirheumatism detention purgative effect, not oil in the diet increases the amount of cholesterol in the blood. The oil is used as a remedy for rheumatic pains.Chinese medicine recommends seeds to treat dysmenorrhea in women, they having an astringent effect on the uterus. Outside the fatty acid content of 32-40% and a percentage seeds contain 11-17% protein and 4-7% wate. To emphasise the yielding capacity of some new lines of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under study, we organised, in 2012, a bi-factorial experiment in which experimental factors were as follows: Factor A – sowing time - 1 st time MARCH - 2 nd time APRIL; Factor B – safflower lines T 9, T 10, T 33, T 40 short line. The experiment was set after the randomised block method. The experimental variants were set with three replications with randomisation of the Factor B (safflower lines). Research has shown the influence of planting dates on productivity elements obtained from testing of new lines of safflower.To achieve the objectives of the research were used 4 lines of safflower obtained by individual selection from a population of Timisoara.more abstract
safflower, lines, yield, sowing dates
The dynamic and complex processes (exchanges of substance and energy) which occur differently for each species of cultivated plant and for each type of ecosystem are conditioned by biological requirements and by the action of vegetation factors and territorial ecological factors (climate and soil). Knowledge regarding the way in which the existing natural conditions satisfy the biological requirements of agricultural plants is of great importance for the national economy because a rational location of crops can be accomplished only starting from this scientific basis.Common flax (flaxseed or linseed) is a crop with special importance, as the seeds are used in the food and pharmaceutical industry, for the production of inks, in the soap and linoleum industry, in tannery, for the impregnation of electrical insulators etc. In the present article, the authors have tried to demonstrate that the littoral zone is suitable for the cultivation of common flax. In this regard, a flax crop was established in the didactical and experimental field of the Laboratory of Phytotechny, within “Ovidius” University of Constanta, and another crop was cultivated in the vicinity of the locality Enisala (Tulcea county).Considering that, over the recent years, common flax was cultivated in Romania on small farms (65 ha in 2005), compared to the 1980s-1990s (70-80 thousand ha), and that the average yield for our country is between 500 and 700 kg/ha (800 kg/ha at international level), but also that, in the above mentioned region, due to the fact that the surfaces cultivated with wheat, barley and sunflower increased to the detriment of other plants, a rational crop rotation can no longer be observed. Thus, this article intends to represent a starting point for the expansion of this economically valuable crop in the studied area.more abstract
common flax, territorial ecological factor.
Vegetable oils are a class of natural products very frequently used in phytocosmetology. Natural remedies with antiaging action are very popular in our days. Harmfulness of natural compounds on the skin, is quickly observed by the 24-48 hour patch test skin irritation and erythema measurement. Changes in the concentration of melanin and sebum in the dermis represent real parameters which give information regarding the status of skin aging. These parameters were measured with the device Mexameter MX18 and Sebumeter MS 815. Peanut oil and olive oil induced a slight increase in levels of melanin, during the 28 days of study. Grape seed oil had a mean constant action. Argan oil and sesame induced a slight reduction in the concentration of melanin. It was also noted that the application of peanut oil and olive induced an increase in concentration in sebum. Argan oil, grapes oil, and to a lesser extent, sesame oil induced a lower level of sebum in the dermis.more abstract
skin, phytocosmetology, vegetable oil, Mexameter, Sebumeter
Common bean is an interesting crop from the point of view of the consumer, farmer and processor. Consequently, breeding program objectives must be designed to address the needs of the farmers who will use the cultivars. An important challenge for dry bean breeders working with certain market classes is the negative association between seed size and seed yield potential. Correlation is a pragmatic approach to develop selection criteria for accumulating optimum combination of yield contributing traits in a simple genotype. To increase yield, the study of direct and indirect effects of yield and its components provide the basis for its successful breeding program and thus increase of bean yield can be more effective ely tackled on the basis of performance of yield components and selection for closely associated traits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interrelationships between different yield traits in dry bean genotypes from Romania with the purpose to dignify the possibilities of combining these traits in an optimum proportion to improve the yield. For these genotypes about 98 % of the grains yield variability can be explained by the influence of the seven quantitative traits. The number of pods/plant has the highest distinctly significant contribution (54 %) on achieving yield, followed by pod weight with a contribution of 30 % on the total variability. Given the partial and semi partial correlations coefficients between grains weight/plant and other traits, it is noted that the individual relation of each trait is strongly controlled by the influences of the other traits included in the study. Grains weight/pod and grains number/plant have a positive and significant indirect influence on the contribution of other traits to yield achievement. Pod weight affects in a considerable and negative extent the contribution of different traits to yield achievement. It is recommended to obtain and cultivate bean genotypes that possess an optimal number of 4-5 seeds / pod, associated with a pod length of 8-9 cm, which provides more than 30 grains / plant.more abstract
dry bean, correlations, grains yield,
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important edible food legume in the world, representing 50 % of grain legumes for direct human consumption, normally complementing cereals. Common bean is an interesting crop from the point of view of the consumer, farmer and processor. In plant breeding, grain yield of a cultivar is usually the most important attribute for crop production. Globalisation of trade in agricultural products will increase the pressure to improve bean yields. Seed yield in P. vulgaris is generally expressed as the product of three components: pods/plant, seeds/pod and seed weight. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the phenotypic diversity between 15 dry bean genotypes from Romania in terms of some yield traits, in order to identify the genotypes which could be considered of interest in breeding programs. Following the study, genotypes that exhibit high values of yield traits were identified, which can be used as genes source for breeding of dry bean. Therefore, at F 822/95 line the high level of yield per plant is strongly associated with high number of pods/plant and number of grains/plant, and a medium value of TGW, respectively. Ami variety and F 835/95, F 1247/92, F 962/97 lines, recorded higher yield and values of the other traits above the experience mean. Crossing the phenotypically differentiated genotypes like: Avans - F 822/95; Vera - F 822/95; Diva - Avans; F 1235/91 - F 822/95 ; F 835/95 - F 822/95, allows obtaining hybrids that possess useful gene combinations and show high levels of heterosis for different yield traits.more abstract
dry bean, phenotypic diversity, yield traits
Triticale is the first man-made cereal grain crop species resulting from the hybridization of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with rye (Secale cereale), the name of which combines the scientific names of the two genera involved (Triticosecale or Triticale) . As a hybrid species, it combines rusticity from rye with productivity from wheat as well as other many attributes of both of its parents.Being a plant exclusively done by humans Triticale sp. inherited from parents specific agricultural skills but most important these herb valuable features incorporated into its genome in terms of resilience to adverse conditions. The most important components in triticale production are the number of grains / spike and grain weight / spike, the last being determined as a result of grain filling rate and the duration it was made.The aim of this study was to test the performance of the genotypes studied by analyzing the main elements of productivity and their behaviour under the influence of environmental factors and depending on agro-technical treatment used. The experiments were conducted over two years, 2010-2011 and 2011- 2012, at Agricultural Research and Development Station from Turda. The biological material used, consist of 25 winter triticale genotypes from different sources. Yield and yield component values were different from year to year due to climatic conditions of each growing season.The trial was set in three replication arranged by quadratic balanced latice method with repeated basic scheme which allow us to use two levels of fertilization, respectively lower fertilization applied at plant emergence and additional fertilization at stem elongation stage. At maturity, before harvest plant height was measured. Also in order to determine the influence of additional fertilization level the yield components have been determined. So, were collected from each experimental plots 25 ears which were determined based on the main elements of productivity (number of grains per spike, grain weight per ear (g), one thousand grains weight (TKW), specific weight (Kg/hl), etc.)Based on the results obtained were established some relationships between the main components of production and their influence on other factors apply.more abstract
triticale, yield, grains per spike, grain weight; thousand-kernel weight;
YIELD AND SOME AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES IN THE YIELD TRIALS AT ARDS TURDA pag. 169-175I. RACZ, M. M. DUDA, S. I. BRĂILEANU, R OZAIA KADAR, V. MOLDOVAN
The results of our study are about of yield capacity and stability of different winter wheat variety in Transilvanian Plain conditions, as well as an analysis of the main elements of productivity. Under semi-arid conditions wheat genotipe with a longer grain filling duration give lower yields if occur high water and temperature deficiency. The plant genotype and environment both influence the rate and duration of grain filling, which have a directly influence on the grain productivity. Productivity components and some morpho-physiological traits such as number of grains per spike, grain weight per ear, thousand kernel weight , plant size and plant density are closely related to the production of grain. On the other hand,between grain yield and protein content and wet gluten content there are an negative relationship.The experiments were conducted over two years, 2011 and 2012, at Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda, which are characterized with a high rainfall and temperatures favourable for winter wheat crop. The biologic material used in our study is quite varied, consisting of 25 winter wheat varieties of local and foreign origin.On the bases of results obtained it can say that winter wheat genotypes studied had different reactions to the environmental conditions and agro-technological factors apply.Although most elements of productivity studied are under genetic control, but more or less environmental influence that affect negatively the main elements by increasing or decreasing the production.The best results were registered to winter wheat varieties released by ARDS Turda which means that they have a good adaptability and yield stability to the specific environments.The foreign winter wheat varieties had also a very good behaviour recording high yields, which means they have a good adaptability which recommend them for use in this area. Concluding, on the basis of our results, the wheat growers from Transilvania, have large possibilities to choice the best cultivars for their particular environmental and farming conditions.more abstract
wheat, yield, thousand-kernel weight; grain weight; number of grains per spike;
RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON BEER BARLEY QUALITY IN TWO AREAS OF CULTURE pag. 176-181Fănel C. TARJOC, Valeriu TABĂRĂ, Ovidiu PĂTRUI, Gabriela GORINOIU, Anca BABOŞ, Corina (RĂDUCAN) PĂTRĂŞCOIU
Both for winter and spring barley, for the main area of use - brewing - of particular importance is their quality.The main elements of quality under the influence of fertilization were followed in eight varieties of winter and spring barley in two areas with different climatic conditions, Timişoara and Mizieş - Bihor. Were determined: dry matter, starch, crude protein, fat, ash, power of germination (germination energy), extract. The research was conducted in two areas with different climatic conditions, Timişoara and Mizieş - Bihor. In both centers, four varieties of spring barley were studied: Aspen, Adonis, Penellope and Hanca and four varieties of winter barley: Laura, Trasko, Plaissant and Clarine. The research aimed to determine the influence of fertilization on yields. Four variants of fertilization were used: N 48 P 48 K 48 ; N 48 P 48 K 48 + PlantfertU; N 48 P 48 K 48 + MicrofertU and N 48 P 48 K 48 + TerraSorb. The variant N 48 P 48 K 48 was used as control. Foliar fertilizers were applied during vegetation before earing. Research shows that both the studied varieties and the fertilization variants strongly influence the quality of barley. The results show that climatic conditions are essential not only for production but also for its quality, the qualitative values are different in the two research centers. In Timisoara in 2005-2007 grains protein content (raw material) to the four studied varieties are within 8.37 and 9.44. Compared to dry substance, the range of protein content is between 7.51 and 8.45%. Under the influence of the agrofond, protein content of barley and two-row barley grains varies between 8.84% on the agrofond where foliar fertilizer Terra Sorb Foliar was used overlapped on a basic agrofond N 48 P 48 K 48 and 9.14 on the agrofond N 48 P 48 K 48 - without foliar fertilization. Analysis of protein content in barley and two-row barley grains (raw material) in the interaction between the experimental factors (variety x agrofond) is found that commonly at all barley and two-row barley studied varieties, foliar fertilizers causes a lower protein content than the one made on witness agrofond N 48 P 48 K 48 .more abstract
barley, winter two-row barley, varieties, foliar fertilizers, production, quality.
RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON BEER BARLEY AND TWO ROWS BARLEY PRODUCTION IN TWO AREAS OF CULTURE pag. 182-185F. C. TARJOC, V.TABĂRĂ, O. PĂTRUI, G. GORINOIU, Amalia NEAG, Corina (RĂDUCAN) PĂTRĂŞCOIU
Barley is a cereal crop with multiple uses: as fodder, brewing, food. Has long been one of the main crop with wheat and millet. In recent decades the importance of barley decreased and cultivated area declined by 3-4 times. Barley grains contain a percentage of 8-15% cellulose (paddy), 60-70% starch, 11% protein, 10% ballast, lipids, vitamins (especially B) and minerals, gluten. People with gluten intolerance can not drink beer because barley is an important ingredient. The economic importance of barley is lower compared to that of wheat, corn, rice or rye; is used especially winter barley as animal feed. In food people can remember especially malt and brewing coffee, also one can remember the effect of barley extract in cases of high fever, with fever-lowering effect of patient. In addition to the uses already known, barley has therapeutic qualities, recovered by treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, cystitis, rheumatism, cough, hemorrhoids, influenza, infertility, depression, anemia, skin problems etc. Barley is considered the therapeutic properties of herbal and remineralizing, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, increases sex drive and helps people young and old to recover after a period of convalescence. The research was conducted in two areas with different climatic conditions, Timişoara and Mizieş - Bihor. In both centers, four varieties of spring barley were studied: Aspen, Adonis, Penellope and Hanca and four varieties of winter barley: Laura, Trasko, Plaissant and Clarine. The research aimed to determine the influence of fertilization on yields. Four variants of fertilization were used: N 48 P 48 K 48 ; N 48 P 48 K 48 + PlantfertU; N 48 P 48 K 48 + MicrofertU and N 48 P 48 K 48 + TerraSorb.The variant N 48 P 48 K 48 was used as control. Foliar fertilizers were applied during vegetation before earing. The experimental results obtained in both areas, highlights the difference of production potential between the studied varieties and the positive influence of foliar fertilizers on grain production both in spring and winter varieties.more abstract
barley, two rows barley, fertilizing, foliar tratments.
THE ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILIZATION INFLUENCE AT CORN CROPS ON THE SOIL AGROCHEMICAL INDICATORS AND THE ACCUMULATION OF NUTRIENTS IN THE MAIZE AND IN THE CORN LEAVES FOR IDENTIFYING SOME NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS (POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY) pag. 186-192C. TOADER, Marilena MĂRGHITAŞ, Andra Ramona PORUŢIU, Lavinia MOLDOVAN, Mihaela MIHAI
The negative vegetation states concerning de absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients occur in connection with the manifestation of extreme states of supplying the plants with nutritional elements-deficiency or excess. The causes that determine these states are complex and multiple, in general they depend on the soil attributes (fertility conditions), on biological factors (nutritional attributes of the genotype), on technological factors and last but not least on the climatic conditions. This research conducted an analysis on the agrochemical indicators of chernozem soil (SRTS – 2003) which was organo-mineral differentially fertilized, in different doses and combinations, cultivated with corn and also an analysis on the content in nutritional elements of the plant (for maize and leaves). The soil and the plant analysis was motivated by the necessity for a comparison between the agrochemical attributes of the soil and the accumulations of nutrients in the plant because at a proper soil fertility, the nutritional process of the plant is also proper. However, during the blooming period of the corn, the nitrogen consumption decreases and the potassium consumption increases and on the corn leaves the potassium deficiency is highlighted (marginal necrosis of the leaves), but only for the fertilizations variants with the highest complex mineral fertilizer dose - NP (N 150 P 150 – N 200 P 200 ). The agrochemical analysis of the corn leaves that were affected by the potassium deficiency symptoms emphasized high accumulations of N t (%) and low towards critically low accumulations of potassium (K t %). These results determined us to develop a characterization of the soil agrochemical indicators and a determination of the nutrients content in maize (N, P, K, Ca). Following the analysis conducted on the soil we can conclude that this type of soil holds favorable indices for cultivating corn and the potassium deficiency and the low productions achieved in 2012 can be attributed to the unfavorable climatic conditions. As we mentioned earlier, the negative vegetation states, concerning the absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients are determined by various causes, among which, the unfavorable climatic conditions. Concerning the analysis results on the vegetal material in the maize, the nutrient accumulations took values that were specific for the genotype with genetic determination for the species and hybrid cultivated. The vegetation period in 2012 was characterized by climatic conditions that were less favorable for obtaining big, quality crop productions due to a low precipitation rate (much below the normal rate for that specific period) and high temperatures, facts that led to obtaining crop productions that were below the production potential of the hybrid used in the experiments (8-14 t/ha maize). The importance of this research results from the link between the nutrient accumulations in corn plants at different nitrogen doses and the climatic conditions during the vegetation period, even though the soil holds an optimum amount of nutrients from an agrochemical point of view. The detection and diagnosis of these nutritional disorders has a more preventive and corrective nature than the specific treatments for dealing with the intense symptoms.more abstract
nutrients, nutritional disorders, K deficiency, agrochemical indices
Laboratory scale experiments were conducted consisting of silages of chopped sweet sorghum, sweet sorghum bagasse, combinations of sweet sorghum with maize stalks, treated and untreated with LAB inoculant and ethanol as preservation additives. Twelve types of silages were obtained by combination of types of biomass and additives. The effect of these additives and biomass combinations on the qualities and composition of the resulted silage was examined. Silages were analyzed to assess the preservation of nutritive value and quality of the ensiled biomass. The lowest pH values (3.3) where in silages of sorghum bagasse and sorghum bagasse with ethanol. The highest pH values (6-6.3) where in silages of maize stalks, where the highest number of contaminants where found as well. Soluble sugars where preserved in high concentration in ensiled biomass treated with ethanol: over 91% of the water soluble sugars was found in sorghum ensiled with ethanol, and less than 57% in sorghum ensiled with lactic bacteria. The ethanol additive inhibited as well the breakdown of silage protein and the multiplication of contaminants (1.9 log 10 cfu g -1 in ethanol treated sorghum comparing with 3.2 log 10 cfu g -1 in control sorghum silage without additives). Preservation parameters of maize stalks are improved by adding fresh sweet sorghum to dry maize stalks. Lactic bacteria inoculants ameliorate the preservation parameters in sweet sorghum and mixed biomass, but leads to consumption of sugars. Using ethanol as silage additive the biomass is well preserved, the growth of contaminants, soluble sugars and protein losses are inhibited. The loss in dry matter, crud fats, crude cellulose was not significant in all silages. A small portion of ethanol produced by fermenting sugar from sweet sorghum can be used to preserve the feedstock biomass. Sweet sorghum can be used as well to improve preservation qualities of corn stalks to be used as biogas feedstock.more abstract
sweet sorghum, silage, ethanol, inoculant.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOIL TILLING SYSTEM ON THE PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE CORN CULTURE IN THE SOMESAN PLATEAU pag. 200-203Adrian Ioan POP, Teodor RUSU, Ileana BOGDAN, Paula Ioana MORARU, Constantin TOADER
The knowledge about the influence that soil tillage has on the agricultural production and profit has been the permanent concern of both scientific research and farmers. Soil tillage has an evident impact on the soil and production, but without a constant value and a certain size, as the relation with the surrounding environment always interferes, especially the weather conditions, the status of the ecological determinants and the cultivated technology applied. The crop level depends on the degree to which each factor and all of them together come close to the optimum values requested by the biology of the plants, so that the corn production recorded in the experimental years in the area of the Somesan Plateau is connected to the soil tiling system and the climatic conditions. This paper follows the line of the present and future attempts of transforming the technologies by the rationalization of some of their components, respectively by replacing one soil tilling system with another one, with the final purpose of preserving the soil and obtaining efficient and sufficient productions. The high balance of soil tillage expenses in the corn culture technology motivates the rationalization of the soil tillage with the purpose of reducing the fuel consumption and introducing new soil tillage alternatives with the chisel, paraplow and rotary harrow which lead to making the cultivation technology more productive, an increase in profit for the surface unit and a decrease of the production costs in the area. The new soil tilling systems recommended for different climate and soil areas and actual local conditions constitute alternatives which eliminate the risk factors and their negative consequences on the agricultural agro-ecosystems. The increase in the fuel prices and the necessity of reducing the energetic input with the purpose of increasing the economic efficiency of the soil cultivation was another cause which led to major changes in the concept of soil tillage. This paper is designed as an experiment with the four tilling systems in which the production and economic efficiency is observed for corn, which has the highest balance in the area in the arid years conditions which we have been facing lately. The analysis of the corn production by the tillage system confirms the above mentioned, with productions between 3656 hg/ha and 4504 kg/ha.The analysis of the recorded corn production confirms the inefficiency of the use in the conditions of the Somesan Plateau of the rotary harrow and chisel, as highly significant negative differences with limits between 583–738 kg/ha have been recorded comparatively to the classical plowing alternative.more abstract
soil tillage, production, economic efficiency
RESEARCH REGARDING THE ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILIZATION EFFECT ON THE MAIZE PRODUCTION AND ON THE ACCUMULATION OF NUTRIENTS IN CORN LEAVES FOR IDENTIFYING SOME NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS (POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY) pag. 204-208Constantin TOADER, Marilena MĂRGHITAŞ, Andra Ramona PORUŢIU, Lavinia MOLDOVAN, Mihaela MIHAI, Adrian Ioan POP
The quantitative and qualitative increase of the agricultural production is an important concern world wide. In the context of the world’s increasing population, of the prognosis according to which the world’s population will double until 2030 and of the diversification of requirements for agricultural raw materials in industry, the agricultural development becomes a primary goal at a global level and also at a local level for each country in particular. In terms of scientific foundation of the complex effects in the food chain, all agricultural systems are perfectible and can’t fully achieve the objectives imposed by the human society, by the consumers and by the increasing requirements for the soil fertility. Through this study we want to clear some aspects concerning the organo-mineral fertilization effect on the maize production, hybrid-Monsanto Dekalb 4626, having a production potential of 8-14 t/ha. The experiments were conducted in 2012 on a chernozem type of soil (SRTS-2003), having a high towards a very high production potential. The vegetation period in 1012 was characterized by less favorable climatic conditions for obtaining a big, quality production due to a low rate of precipitation (much below the regular rate for that specific time of the year) and also due to high temperatures, events that led to productions that were very much below the production potential of the hybrid used in the experiments (2,6 – 4,6 t/ha maize). The differentiated fertilization variants included effects of mineral fertilizers originated from mineral NP fertilizers (in differentiated doses), of organic fertilizers originated from partially fermented stable manure (20t/ha) and partially fermented poultry manure (12t/ha). The production results revealed the beneficial nature of the organic-mineral combinations, where significant production increases were obtained in comparison with the unfertilized witness variant, below the production potential of this hybrid. The unfavorable climatic conditions led to an incomplete binding in the fructification phenophase, in some variants and at the variants that were fertilized with a maximum NP dose during the blooming phenophase, to the specific symptom in potassium deficiency, meaning that the “marginal necrosis” in corn leaves was emphasized. The agrochemical analysis on the corn leaves showed, at the variants that were fertilized with 150-200 kg active substance/ha, nitrogen and phosphorus, an accumulation that was close to the critical threshold regarding the nitrogen level and low towards poor regarding the potassium level. The importance of this study is resulting from the link between the accumulations of nutrients in corn plants at different nitrogen doses and climatic conditions during the corn vegetation period, even though the soil has an optimum level of nutrients from an agrochemical point of view.more abstract
productions, nutrients, nutritional disorders, potassium deficiency, maize
FROM THE WEATHER TO CLIMATE IN THE WESTERN PLAIN pag. 209-222Silvia BARBU, Vlad MIRCOV
The aspect from one day to another represents the change in a specified weather that express themselves through decreased or increased temperature, precipitation, strong wind, fog or other meteorological phenomena. The concept of climate is situated on a higher level of abstraction than the concept of weather (Ion- Bordei and Bojariu, 2005). The climate of a place, of a country of the Earth can be defined as one long-term synthesis measure by the time walking from one day to another. The World Meteorological Organization offered in 1984, the next definition " climate represents synthesis of weather conditions in a particular region based on long observation sequences (at least 30 years) of atmospheric variables" (Climatological practices Guide, WMO, 1984). Weather is what is happening in nature at a time, while climate is a measure of what is expected to happen in any month, season or year and refers to certain statistical parameters calculated from the data of observations for a period of several years. These statistics parameters relating generally to the mean, standard deviation, and so on, include extreme events (droughts, floods, heat waves, cold waves, and so on). The climate of a region is determined by factors such as radiative, dynamic and physical geography. They directly affect spatial-temporal variation of climatic elements in a given territory. Western Plain has a warm temperate continental climate with moderate humidity throughout the year, without excessive dry season and relatively mild summers, warm and cold season, is thermally well delimited. During 1961-2010, the average annual air temperature in the Western Plain has been growing. Growth is not alarming, growth rate is reduced. The largest increase is noted in the southern weather stations, most commonly affected by advection of warm tropical air masses. The warmest year of the period 1961-2010 was 2000 and 2007, and the coldest year was 1980 and 1985. There were no years "exceptionally warm" (deviations> 2.5 ° C). Also were not reported years "very warm" nor "too cold". Annual rainfall is a typical temperate continental climate, with a maximum in June and a minimum in February. Summarizing data on seasonal mean temperature regime during 1961-2010, significant heating is evident during the summer. In winter and in spring this trend is reduced, the average temperature variations are less important. Autumn is seen even a slight decrease in average temperature. Summer warming trend can be caused by an increased anticyclonic configurations simultaneous ground and altitude centered in the north, which intensified after 1987. This increase was caused either by natural causes or anthropogenic (increased greenhouse gases) or by overlapping the two factors.more abstract
CHARACTERISTIC BARIC STRUCTURES AT 500 MB ASSOCIATED WITH DANGEROUS METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA IN SOUTH WESTERN ROMANIA pag. 223-229NICHITA C., VASILACHE IULIANA ANCA, MIRCOV V. D., SPOMENCA PETRICI
The dangerous weather phenomena considered in this study (regardless of whether damage occurred or no) have been reported by weather stations from Caras-Severin, Timis, Arad and Hunedoara county, pluviometric or hydrological stations and intervention reports of inspectorate for emergency situations units or from media presentations. Cases analyzed overlay the period between January 2002-March 2013 and covers characteristic weather phenomena both to the warm (torrential rain, hail, squalls or convective strong winds) and cold season (hoar frost, glaze ice).These phenomena, depending on their intensity, area of the events or other considerations (for exemple the existence of a previous rain period) were warned at national or regional level through warning messages in different colour codes.more abstract
atmospheric circulation, baric centers, dangerous weather phenomena .