Vol 50, No 3 (2018)
Hypochromic anaemia cases are characterised by a deficit in synthetizing and then depositing of haemoglobin in erythroblasts and may result from metabolism disorders or poor synthetizing of any haemoglobin component (iron, protoporphyrin, globin). The microscopic exam of peripheral blood smears correlated with the study of automated complete blood cell counts (CBC) leads to the establishment of an efficient treatment which should correct the occurring deficit. The peripheral blood smears were examined under the microscope, establishing erythrocyte size, aspect and haemoglobin load. We observed shape variations (dacrocytes, ovalocytes, stomatocytes) in variable proportions (12.5-43.75%) as well as erythrocyte diameter variations (anisocytosis) associated with hypochromia. The study of automated complete blood cell counts supported the microscopic observations; the erythrocyte number was 38.5% lower, and the haemoglobin quantity and haematocrit value were 26.84%, respectively 23.75% lower than the minimum values of the reference biological interval.more abstract
hypochromic anaemia, haemoglobin, blood smear, complete blood cell count (CBC)
Thrips species have always been some of the main pests in winter wheat crops. Damages caused by this species are either directly by feeding on leaves flowers or fruit, or indirect acting as vectors of viruses. Due to the lack of knowledge on the thrips fauna in western Romania and also the importance of this crop for local farmers, the aimed of this paper is to survey the thrips species associated to winter wheat crops in Timis County, Romania. Thrips were collected from 5 varieties of winter wheat from November to June 2016 – 2017. The monitoring of thrips adults was made using colored sticky traps and the monitoring of thrips larvae was made using the method of ears sampling. The collected material was transported by specific methods in the Entomology laboratory at the Faculty of Agriculture Timisoara. With the help of stereozoom microscope there were determinate the thrips species and also the number of larvae/ear. The most commonly found thrips species was Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov. According with the present studies, the following thrips species also occur in winter wheat crops, in western Romania: Haplothrips aculeatus Fabricius, Frankliniella tenuicornis Uzel, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, Frankliniella tritici Fitch, Frankliniella intonsa Trybom, Limothrips denticornis Haliday, Limothrips angulicornis Jablonowski, Limothrips cerealium Haliday, Aptinothrips rufus Gemelin, Anaphothrips obscures Műller, Stenothrips graminum Uzel, Thrips physapus Linnaeus and Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall. According to farmers from western Romania, their losses range from 20% to 40% depending on the severity of the thrips infestation. Thrips damage is usually higher during the dry season and warmer temperature.more abstract
thrips species, varieties, winther wheat, Timiș county, damage
The insect predator complex in winter wheat crops was studied in order to understand the ecological role played by polyphagous predator in intensive farming system. Is well known that coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are voracious predators of many insect pest, amoung which can mention winter wheat pests (aphids, thrips). Amoung 5000 species described worldwide, only 23 species are reported in Romania (ANDRIEV & CHIMIȘLIU, 2003). Taking into account the lack of information on this family of extremely important predators, an extensive faunal survey was conducted in winter wheat crop in Timiș County, Romania. The aimed of this paper is to assess the species richness and distribution of coccinellid in 5 winter wheat varieties. Coccinellids were collected from mid April to late July, 2016 – 2017. The monitoring of coccinellids adults and larvae was made using colored sticky traps and direct field counts. Coccinellidae familiy form the most abundent family of predators – compresing 38, 04%. During the investigation 11 species of predatory coccinellids were collected from winter wheat crops from western part of Romania, namely: Chilocorus bipustulatus, Adalia bipunctata, Adalia decimpunctata, Calvia quatordecimguttata, Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia axyridis, Adonia variegata, Hippodamia tredecimpunctata, Propylaea quatordecimpunctata, Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata and Scymnus frontalis. Adults and larvae of Coccinella septempunctata were the most abundent species found in the study.more abstract
coccinelids, pests, winter wheat, Western Romania, crops
Abstract. The article presents methods to improve the productivity and floristic composition of natural grasslands used as transition pastures in Muminabad district, Tajikistan. In this region livestock is moving annually from winter pastures to summer pastures. The number of the animals implied in this transition is 3 million heads. The author carried out the botanical surveys of the experimental plots with the aim of comparing their modification. Before selecting the experimental plot and set the experiments there has been determined the vegetation of the pasture, considering floristic composition and consumption of natural vegetation. In order to determinate the yield of fodder crops there was sowed sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and a mixture of these legumes with meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis). Before sowing the seeds, the surface of the soil was treated with a Chinese two-wheel tractor (15hp). Sowing of fodder crops carried out in spring time, beginning of February 2018. For the obtaining of fodder crops yield there were used mineral fertilizers as ammophos (N-12P2O5-52) and carbamide (NH2)2CO. Experimental field has a total area of 1800 sq. meter, which was 20 sq meter for each plot. The results of our research showed that the highest yield were obtained from legume – grasses mixture, respectively 7.9 t/ha for sainfoin mixture with meadow fescue..more abstract
Key words: pastures, natural grasslands, fodder crops, sainfoin, alfalfa, meadow fescue.
SOME BIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POLYGONUM SACHALINENSE IN MOLDOVA pag. 26-32V. ŢÎŢEI 1, Natalia CÎRLIG 1, M. STAVARACHE 2, Ana GUȚU 1, S. COŞMAN
The mobilization and acclimatization of new herbaceous plant species, plant breeding and development of technological elements in order to obtain the maximum biomass yield for further processing into various types of products, are important research activities. We investigated some biological features and the biochemical composition of the biomass of a non traditional crop, giant knotweed – Polygonum sachalinense cv. “Gigant”, and evaluated the green mass nutritional value for animals and biomethane productivity for renewable energy. It has been determined that, in the 3rd year, the cv. “Gigant” was characterised by high growth and development rates; the green mass yield reached 12.3 kg/m2; the calculated fodder productivity – 22 t/ha nutritive units and 3700 kg/ha digestible protein; it can be a good source of essential amino acids in the livestock feed, exceeding substantially traditional crops, such as alfalfa – Medicago sativa. The biochemical methane production potential 249-253 L/kg VS.more abstract
amino acids, biological features, biomethane productivity, nutritional value, Polygonum sachalinense.
Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a perennial species of the Asteraceae family with a wide ecological plasticity encountered in natural grassland ecosystems. The creation of numerous varieties, intended for animal feed, has revealed a number of characteristics of production, quality and resistance to the natural conditions of forage chicory, compared to other species. The researches carried out have demonstrated the potential for high production and quality of forage chicory compared to some perennial legumes species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus). On average, chicory had a production of 6.59 t/ha compared to only 5.12 t/ha obtained by legumes, in non-fertilized variants, and 8.54 t/ha compared to only 5.81 t/ha attained by legumes, in fertilized N100 variants. Also, the crude protein content in chicory was 22.62% in the control (N0) and 25.06% in the fertilized variants (N100), compared to the legumes of 20.31% (N0), respectively, 18.11% (N100).more abstract
Cichorium intybus, grassland legumes, dry matter, crude protein
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LAVENDER OIL PRODUCED FROM LAVENDER CULTIVATED IN THE SOUTH OF MADRID pag. 37-42S. SMETAN1; Dana COPOLOVICI2; Ilinca Merima IMBREA1; Gabriela Valentina CIOBOTARIU1; L. COPOLOVICI2; Georgeta, POP1.
Abstract. Chemical composition of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia L), produced from lavender cultivated on the experimental site of Morata (Table 1). Lavender inflorescences contain linalool as a major compound. In addition, the chemical composition is influenced by the environmental factors of the growing and blooming period of plants (HASSIOTIS et al., 2014; KIRAN, and BHANU, 2015). We identified 21 compounds in the volatile oils of Lavandula angustifolia L., out of which 14 major compounds (at a concentration of over 0.2%) accounted for 99.53% of the total number of compounds. The remainder of the chemical compounds was found in an amount less than 10% of the total amount. Our results are consistent with other studies on the composition of Lavandula angustifolia L. oil (DUDA et al., 2015, VERMA et al., 2010; DA PORTO et al., 2009). The experimental results obtained in 2016 showed that two chemical compounds, with the highest values, dominate the chromatographic profile of lavender essential oil presented in Table 1: linalool 21.28% and linalyl acetate 18.84%. These major compounds, linalool 21.28% and linalyl acetate 18.84%, are representative compounds of lavender essential oil.more abstract
lavender, essential oil, chemical composition
Abstract. The study refers to the production results and the volatile oil content obtained in the majoram and thyme culture under the climatic conditions of 2016-2017. Research has been conducted in the experimental field in southern Madrid. Dry herb (Herba Mojoranae) contains 0.8-1.1% volatile oil with a production of 2260-2360 kg/ha. Dry herb (Herba Thymi) contains 0.78-0.80% volatile oil with a yield of 1228-1440 kg/ha. In the experimental field to ensure the water need of aromatic plants, four irrigation norms were applied, including the first flood with a norm of 120l/m2, followed by 3 drip irrigation with a norm of 30l/m2 per irrigation. The precipitation recorded in the year 2017 were close to the needs of aromatic crops. Regarding the temperature regime no difference is observed compared to 2016. With 0.23 ml of oil obtained from 100g of dried herb, Origanum majorana L with 0.13 of oil obtained from 100g of dried herb and Origanum vulgare L., with 0.14 ml of oil obtained from 100g of dried herb.( C. F. RUS,ET AL 2013)more abstract
aromatic plants, volatile oil, majoram, thyme
EXAMINATION OF RELATIVE CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT, LEAF AREA AND YIELD IN MONOCULTURE LONG-TERM EXPERIMENT OF MAIZE IN 2016 pag. 50-57G. BENCZE, Z. FUTÓ
In Hungary, maize has the largest field after the winter wheat. Its 26-27% of all cultivated areas. In the World, the yield of maize were 1071 million tonnes in 2016 (FAO). It is estimated that this figure will grow by 12 million annually. Its main field of use is animal feed, which is about 90% of the yield in our country. The world's population is growing steadily, and this is predicting that the use of food is becoming increasingly important. We reveal the plant physiology and technological contexts in our examinations, that the bases of the modern nutrient solutions, and the scientific bases of the efficient development of the maize growing system The experiment was set up at Szarvas in the experimental field of the University of Szent István, Faculty of Agricultural and Economics Studies, in Galambos. During the research, we examined the effect of various nutrients (N, P, K) ratios on maize monoculture in long-term experiments. The contexts between the factors 64 nutrients we measured it on a supply level, 4 nitrogens portion (0 kg ha-1, 70 kg ha-1, 140 kg ha-1 and 210 kg ha-1), 4 phosphoruses portion (0 kg ha-1, 40 kg ha-1, 80 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1) and 4 potassiums portion (0 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1, 120 kg ha-1 and 180 kg ha-1) On the parcels all possible combinations get to a setting, which makes the examinations of the interaction of the nutriment elements. The setting of the experiment onto the bases of the old fertiliser experiment of Faculty on a similar manner, on similar principles, modernized to the scientific and practical claims of our days. We examined the nutrient reaction of maize on the chlorophyll content, the establishment of the leaf area and the average yield. The increase of the leaf area yielded a tight positive correlation with the increase of the average yield and the leaf relative chlorophyll content. From among the nutriment elements we measured the most considerable positive effect in the case of the nitrogen in our experiment. The effects of the phosphorus and the potassium were smaller.more abstract
relative chlorophyll content, leaf area, yield, nutrient supply, maize
The results of Hungarian maize production are significantly below the yields and total quantity als in the world. Maize yields can be increased significantly if we improve the plant's water supply. To increase the yield of maize in Hungary, we can respond faster with the development of irrigation. The irrigation reaction of maize is excellent, increase on the yield of the irrigation, depending on the year and the amount of precipitation, 10-90%. The proportion of agricultural irrigated areas in the world is steadily increasing, in 2013 has exceeded 325 million hectares, which contributes significantly to the increase in the average yield in the world. The yield of maize can be significantly increased by improving the water supply of the plant. In many areas, only little water is available for irrigation. Traditional irrigation has been switched to drip irrigation in the experiment. Drip irrigation is up-to-date, energy and water-saving irrigation. Energy consumption is only a quarter of its rainwater irrigation. The water consumption of drip irrigation is only half of the water consumption of traditional irrigation. There is not a large evaporation loss and leakage loss. Dropping irrigation is not cheap, but it is very beneficial for water consumption, energy consumption and results in a high yield. The water requirement of maize is not too high, 450-550 mm. Daily water consumption is 4.5-5.5 mm/ha (45-55 m3/ha). The effect of drip irrigation in our experiment was examined for the yield of corn. The experiment was set up at Szarvas in the experimental field of the University of Szent István, Faculty of Agricultural and Economics Studies, in Iskolaföld. The yields increased by 22.3-24.5% compared to the yields of control plots. In our experiment, the growth of the average yield was good for economically. It has been found that drip irrigation can be successfully used in maize producting. The large yields resulted in economical drip irrigation.more abstract
corn, irrigation, drip irrigation, crop average
INFLUENCE OF CROP MANAGEMENT ON THE IMPACT OF ZYMOSEPTORIA TRITICI IN WINTER WHEAT IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE: AN OVERVIEW pag. 69-74Otilia COTUNA1, Mirela PARASCHIVU2, M. PARASCHIVU2, L. OLARU2
The impact of climate change on specific biotic constrainers like pathogens and on the host-pathogen relationship is associated with changes in pathogens life cycles, increased incidence, pathogenicity, genetically recombination and aggressiveness traits, which require rethinking the integrated management strategies. However, the results of investigations are inconsistent and poorly understood in the context of climatic change. The present review is focused on the influence of crop management on Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) disease in winter wheat in the context of climate change taking into consideration case studies in order to understand better how the components of disease cycle are affected and to identify disease risk of different agricultural practices. The response of Zymoseptoria tritici pathogen to climate change is of high interest currently in order to estimate disease risk on a large scale and to introduce new understandings in developing management strategies. Soil tillage, crop rotation, sowing date and nitrogen fertilization are considered important tools in disease control which need to be adjusted according with climatically factors for each area which affect the dispersal of ascospores and pycnidiospores of the pathogen. However, further investigation need to be done in order to highlight the impact of climate change on foliar wheat pathogens and which are the most appropriate management tools in order to control these pathogens and to enhance global food security in a changing climate.more abstract
Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB), climate change, crop management, host-pathogen interactions, Zymoseptoria tritici.
STUDY REGARDING THE REACTION OF SOME MAIZE HYBRIDS FROM ITALY TO THE ATTACK OF THE FUNGI USTILAGO ZEAE (BECKM) AND HELMINTHOSPORIUM TURCICUM PASS. IN THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS FROM BANAT’S PLAIN pag. 75-83Otilia COTUNA1, Mirela PARASCHIVU2, Veronica SĂRĂŢEANU1, Carmen DURĂU1, A. BORCEAN
In the western side of Romania appear every year in the maize crops the fungi Ustilago zeae and Helminthosporium turcicum, but the obvious harvest loses appear in the years when are present the optimal limits, the trophic and climatic demands of the pathogen. The objective of this research was the testing of nine maize hybrids original from Italy from the point of view of the reaction to the attack of the pathogens specific in natural infection conditions. The experimental field was placed in the perimeter of the Didactic Station of Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from Timisoara. The hybrids were observed during the entire vegetation period in 2015. The nine hybrids with SIS provenance have been tested for the first time in the conditions of Banat’s Plain. The response of the hybrids to the attack of the two above mentioned pathogens was set by analysing the field data on the resistance source scale and on the cultural scale. In the case of fungus Helminthosporium turcicum six hybrids from the experience were showed sensitivity to the pathogen (Kimbos 500, Kampius 480, Pico 450, Sunsis 420, Kabrios 380 and AGN 340) and three hybrids manifested tolerant reaction (Sistema 580, Cristina 600 şi Kalmus 600 – late hibrids). There was noticed in the late hybrids that the virulence is lower comparative with intermediate and ultra early hybrids. According with the cultural scale, less exigent, the hybrids Kimbos 600 and Kampius 480 are maintaining as sensitive and the others are medium resistant to the pathogen. In the climatic conditions of the year 2015 seven hybrids from experience have manifested resistance reaction to the attack of the pathogen Ustilago zeae, respectively Kalmus 600 (130 days), Sistema 580 (180 days), Cristina 600 and Kimbos 500 (125 days), Kampius 480 (123 days), Pico 450 (120 days), Sunsis 420 (120 days) and the hybrids Kabrios 380 and AGN 340 have manifested sensitivity reaction. In general the tested hybrids have tolerated well the pathogen, the obtained results being in accordance with the production company results. The good tolerance to the attack of the pathogens, even excellent in the case of some hybrids, the vegetative vigour and the tolerance to the water stress make possible their successful cultivation in non-irrigated systems and even on soils with lower soil fertility.more abstract
Ustilago zeae, Helminthosporium turcicum, hybrids, fungi, reaction, common smut, maize