Vol 46, No 3 (2014)
The main environmental and socio-economic functions that have soil , impart quality support for the development of life, but also functions as a ,,recycler” of dead organic matter and some pollutants. Arad is located in the west of Romania and covers an area of 7.754 km2 (3.2%) is the sixth largest city in Romania. It has a varied relief, being represented by mountains, which occupy about half of the county (Forest-Moma Mountains, Zarandului; Găina) hills with heights of 200-400 m (Crişene Hills, pediment Syria Hills Lipovei) plains that make up the lowest step of 95-200 m and comprises Cermeiului Plain Plain White Cris, Arad high Plain and Plain Vingăi. The agricultural area of Arad County is 66% of the total area of the county and 3.4% of Romania, of which 68.46% is arable and use, while 24.75% is occupied by pastures, land ownership structure majority being private. Due to massive deforestation, soil transformations use categories, especially in arable or pedogenesis processes that have changed meaning, whether amplified the speed and intensity of expression. Most times, the evolution of these soils within a chaotic, with overruns stage without the normal interactions between the various factors enter into the process. The county has the following river basins: Cris Black, White Körös, Maros and Bega. The hydrographic network is dominated by the two arteries: Mures, with a total length of 761 m (220 m in the county) and Cris White. This paper aims to make a survey of the main soils in Arad affected by some degradation processes, stakeholders and improvement measures are taken to prevent future undesirable manifestation of these processes. Soils taken in the research were: Luvisols, Stagnosols, Gleysols, Anthrosols and Anthrosols erodic. The main degradation processes of these soils are represented by erosion, organic matter decline, contamination, compaction, soil sealing, landslides and floods.more abstract
soil, degradation, improvement, process, factor
Located in north-central area of Timis County ( 45°83' north latitude and 21° 32' east), DJ 691, Giarmata town lies at a distance of 11 km from Timisoara and the DC 58 to 1.3 km from the International Airport ,,Traian Vuia” Timisoara. The total land area of the village is 7150 ha of which 6292 ha is agricultural land and 43.5 ha are forest. From the geomorphological, the common fall - Crisan Banato Plain, part of the Western Plain of Romania, the eastern extremity of the Tisza Plain. The altitude ranges from 100-178 m The research was conducted over a period of five years, ie years 2009-2013 in the area Giarmata Timis County. The soil in the study is a vertic chernozem, gleyed weak. In order to accomplish this work, we studied the modification of morphological properties, physical, chemical and hydro as a result of human intervention. I stepped through the application of river sand, manure, manure, fertilizers and drip irrigation and sprinklers. Peculiarities of the microclimate of the territory are determined by its geographical position, so that it is characterized by a temperate continental climate with mild winters and short, being frequently under the influence of cyclone activity and air masses crossing the Mediterranean and Adriatic general features of climate marked by diversity and irregularity of atmospheric processes. Average yearly temperature after Timişoara Meteorological Station is 10.9º C and mean yearly rainfall is 631.0 mm, data indicating a process of aridity in the existence of significant oscillations ie 390.5 mm (between 1999 and 2000) and 908.1 mm ( between 1969 and 1970). The investigated part of Bega catchment, basin Bega - Beregsău, waterways most important being Beregsăul, Luchini, Magherus and Niaradul. Plants are grown mainly wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beet, potato, tobacco, clover, alfalfa, soybeans, some legumes, vines and tree species existing between nominate plum, apple, cherry, cherry, apricot, quince and walnut; researches were made vegetable is cultivated tomatoes, eggplants and peppers.more abstract
soil property change, fertilization, anthropogenic intervention
POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF LEAVES AND PANICLES STEMS FROM SEVERAL VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM SACCHARATUM) UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION pag. 11-13Dacian COCLEA, Simona NIŢĂ, Ioana Maria MATEAŞ, Alin ALBAI, Dorin POPA, Lucian BORTĂ
History shows that cereals have always maintained their significance, along the development of human society and to this day. In addition, however, one can see a close link between grain production and progress of civilization. Sorghum is a very old culture, known in India for over 2000 years, cultivated for: beans, brooms, rich in sugar syrup, animal feed or fodder crop as green. Climate Change to heating and arid during 2001-2050 in the Balkans, which is located and Romania, requires a reconsideration of sorghum as: cereal food (beans composite flour used in the formula for baking gluten and gluten-free, fresh juice, extracted of strains used in the manufacture of syrup, vinegar and other food), fodder (as green mass, hay storage, feed pellets) and crops (sorghum and sorghum mature mellitus for the production of raw materials for energy (liquid, solid, gas, electricity, heat), chemical (stationery and textile pulp, plastics), building materials and craft industry (of household and industrial brushes, brooms, blended. Sorghum grains used directly in the form of flour feeding people in some parts of Africa, India, China, Middle East and Egypt. In industry is used in the manufacture of starch, alcohol and beer, mixed with grains of barley. The sweet sorghum juice is extracted a sweet, rich and varied sucrose vegetable substances energy use. In many parts of the world sorghum was traditionally used in various foods such as porridge , unleavened bread, cookies, cakes, couscous and various soft drinks and alcoholic. sorghum has unique properties that make it very suitable for food use. Some varieties of sorghum are rich in antioxidants and all varieties of sorghum are without gluten, an alternative attractive for those suffering from wheat allergy. Modern science in food and nutrition, attaches great importance to the role of nutrition in prevention of onset. Special attention is given to the development of food products for people with increased sensitivity to certain foods. The culture of sorghum, using far fewer pesticides than other crops (wheat and corn). It should be noted that the sorghum plant is not lost anything after processing. Experience has been located in specific on a brown ground, I-mezogleizat moderate slope deposits formed from decomposition and alteration of basic metamorphic rocks. Experience is bifactorial type, so that the annual Repeat the cycle terminates the experimental field we have experience in first year, second year and third year. The biological material used Roza and Carmen were hybrid and variety. Analysis of the proportions involved parts of plants (stems, leaves and panicles) in total production from sweet sorghum green table shows that are strongly influenced by weather conditions and phyto measures applied.more abstract
Keywords: sweet sorghum, green mass, hybrid, variety, fertilization.
Abstract: History shows that cereals have always maintained their significance, along the development of human society and to this day. In addition, however, one can see a close link between grain production and progress of civilization. Sorghum is a very old culture, known in India for over 2000 years, cultivated for: beans, brooms, rich in sugar syrup, animal feed or fodder crop as green. Climate Change to heating and unproductive during 2001-2050 in the Balkans, which is located and Romania, requires a reconsideration of sorghum as: cereal food (beans composite flour used in the formula for baking gluten and gluten-free, fresh juice, extracted of strains used in the manufacture of syrup, vinegar and other food), fodder (as green mass, hay storage, feed pellets) and crops (sorghum and sorghum mature mellitus for the production of raw materials for energy (liquid, solid, gas, electricity, heat), chemical (stationery and textile pulp, plastics), building materials and craft industry (of household and industrial brushes, brooms, blended. Sorghum is the second cereal after maize commercially exploiting the heterosis effect in the agricultural farm, which increased the average production per hectare. is the first grain sorghum that has been fully sequenced genome (2006), which will give rhythms in November progress in improving the species in the coming years. sorghum grains used directly in the form of flour feeding people in some parts of Africa, India, China, Middle East and Egypt. In industry is used in the manufacture of starch, alcohol and beer, mixed with grains of barley. The sweet sorghum juice is extracted a sweet, rich and varied sucrose fitom energy use. In many parts of the world sorghum was traditionally used in various foods such as porridge, unleavened bread, cookies, cakes, couscous and various soft drinks and alcoholic. Sorghum has unique properties that make it very suitable for food use. Some varieties of sorghum are rich in antioxidants and all varieties of sorghum are without gluten, an alternative attractive for those suffering from wheat allergy. Modern science in food and nutrition, attaches great importance to the role of nutrition in prevention of onset. Special attention is given to the development of food products for people with increased sensitivity to certain foods. The culture of sorghum, using far fewer pesticides than other crops (wheat and corn). It also should not neglect the fact that sorghum, sorghum particularly diabetes, contribute significantly to reduce air pollution bad. In different literature, shows that one hectare of sweet sorghum absorbs from the atmosphere each year between 40 and 55 tones of carbon dioxide (CO2), while other crops, eg cereals, only 3 to 10 tons per year CO2/ha . It should be noted that the sorghum plant is not lost anything after processing. Experience is bifactorial type, so that the annual Repeat the cycle terminates the experimental field we have experience in first year, second year and third year. The biological matherial used were hybrids F32 and Arakans. F32 hybrid obtained from INCDA Fundulea, the seed being certificate, and hybrid Arakans French provenance. Mineral fertilizers applied to grain sorghum crop, increased grain production. Variation in grain production in grain sorghum grain (Sorghum b. var. Eusorghum) vary depending on hybrid and the influence of fertilization.more abstract
Keywords: grain sorghum, grain production, fertilization, hybrids.
THE BEHAVIOR OF THE LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM L. SPECIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE IN THE WESTERN PART OF ROMANIA pag. 17-25Marinel HORABLAGA1, Petru RAIN1, Despina Maria BORDEAN1,
Abstract: As a result of global warming, in our country, especially in the West Plain where we conducted our experiment, the effect is clearly visible. In this situation, the autumn crops start their vegetation earlier in spring and are better in facing the summer drought. The paper aims at assessing the growth and development of species Lolium multiflorum L. under the influence of the temperatures recorded in Timişoara until the coming of winter. Thus, The Lolium multiflorum L. crop, SPRINT variety, was set up on the 25th September 2014. The sprouting took place 12 days after that, in which time the average maximum temperature was 150C and the average minimum temperature was 120C. The first assessment of the externalization of some characteristics (parameters) of Lolium multiflorum L. under the influence of the temperatures in the vegetation period took place 16 days after that, and the following four assessments were performed at successive seven days intervals. The research revealed that all parameters studied of species Lolium multiflorum L. increased, irrespective of the daily temperature variations in the vegetation periods analysed, and that these parameters are, to a larger or lesser extent, directly influenced by the average daily temperature (AT). Under the conditions in Timisoara in the timeframe of the experiment, there is positive correlation between the sum of temperature degrees (AD) and most characteristics assessed at Lolium multiflorum L. The total sum of temperature degrees (ADT), recorder in Timişoara, in the period under analysis, is correlated with the development of Lolium multiflorum L. plants, respectively with the increase in the main characteristics evaluated: clump height-BH, number of tillers in the clump – SN, clump weight - BW, number of leaves in a clump – LN and of course with the growth of the main root – LPR. In conclusion, the temperatures recorded at Timişoara, between September and November 2014, on a background of optimal moisture conditions, assured the growth and development of Lolium multiflorum L. plants, so these can begin winter well-rooted, with suitable height and number of tillers to survive the harsh winter conditions.more abstract
Key words: Lolium multiflorum L., average daily temperature, sum of temperature degrees, total sum of temperature degrees
THE DEGREE OF BRANCHING IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) A FEW LINES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING pag. 26-28Ioana Maria MATEAŞ, Valeriu TABĂRĂ , Alin ALBAI, Simona NIŢĂ
Abstract:In this paper, the main objective was to determine the influence of sowing time on the degree of branching to a few new lines of safflower obtained from the local population of Timisoara. An important role for the quality and number of branches plant safflower obtained vegetation had three macronutrients (N, P , K ) .Safflower was grown for its flowers , used for coloring and flavoring . Safflower name derives from the fact that it was cultivated as a cheaper alternative to saffron . This content carthamină because flowers , like saffron . Safflower flowers have calming properties cough . Pigments from safflower flowers are of particular importance for not leave toxic residues colored products . Pigments are synthesized in the root where the vegetation migrates through the conductive tissues in petals. Carthamina is one of the most valuable non-toxic compounds used in the food or in the textile industry . The seeds are used in the treatment of tumors , especially for the localized in the liver. Flowers are considered as having laxative properties , sedative , and is used to treat scarlet fever . It notes that safflower oil is widely used in pharmaceutical industry and antirheumatic detention purgative effect , not oil in the diet increases the amount of cholesterol in the blood. The oil is used as a cure for pain Chinese reumatismale.Medicina recommended seeds in treatment of dysmenorrhea in women , they having an astringent to the uterus . Besides fatty acid content of 32-40 % , the seeds contain protein percentage 11-17 % and 4-7 % water. To highlight the degree of branching capacity new lines of safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) under study, organized experience bifactorial the experimental factors were: Factor A - sowing period - Age I - MARCH era II a - APRIL , factor B - safflower lines , T 9 , T 10 , T 33 , T 40 low waist . Placing field experience was made by the method of randomized blocks with plots . The experimental variants were placed in three repetitions with randomization factor B ( safflower lines ) . Researches have shown the influence of planting dates on some elements of productivity achieved by testing new lines of safflower .more abstract
Key words: safflower, lines, sowing,branching.
Abstract: In this paper, the main objective was to determine the influence of sowing on oil content, several new lines of safflower obtained from the local population of Timisoara. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), as an oil plant, has been known since ancient times. It is cultivated in U.S.A., Israel, Morocco, Spain, Italy, France, Pakistan, Tunisia, India, and Australia. Safflower has been cultivated mainly for the edible oil obtained from its seeds. It is mentioned that safflower oil has wide uses in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its purgative and anti-rheumatism effects. It does not result in an increase of the cholesterol level in the blood. Safflower flowers have tonic properties in cough.Pigments of safflower flowers are particularly important because they leave no toxic residues in coloured products. Pigments are synthesised in the root where, during vegetation, they migrate towards leading tissues towards the petals.The oil is used as a remedy for rheumatic pains. Outside the fatty acid content of 32-40% and a percentage seeds contain 11-17% protein and 4-7% water. Carthamine is one of the most valuable non-toxic compounds used in the food industry or in the textiles industry.Results obtained recently in China concern the use of safflower flowers-based medicines with good effects on coronary diseases and on angina pectoris, curing 75.6% of the total patients treated.The incidence of re-occurrence of cardiac crises as well as of side-effects is rarer than in the case of nitro-glycerine-based medicines.In order to reach the goals of our research, we used 4 safflower lines obtained through individual selection from a population of Timişoara.To highlight content burrs safflower oil (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under study, organized experience bifactorial the experimental factors were: Factor A - sowing period - the era I - MARCH era II - APRIL, factor B - safflower lines, T 9, T 10, T 33, T 40 low waist. Placing field experience was made by the method of randomized blocks with plots. The experimental variants were placed in three repetitions with randomization factor B (safflower lines). Researches have shown the influence of planting dates on some elements of productivity achieved by testing new lines of safflower.more abstract
Key words: safflower, oils, lines, sowing.
REMOTE SENSING AS A TREND IN AGRICULTURE pag. 32-37D. JOVANOVIĆ, M. GOVEDARICA, D. RAŠIĆ
Remote sensing are widely used in the field of agriculture, forests, urbanism, transport and other fields for better performance and results. The aim of this paper is to show small part possibility of using remote sensing in the area of agriculture. Main part of this research is to show the process of classification and mapping of agriculture crops using satellite images from Rapideye satellite platform. These satellite images were used for the classification of three basic crops: corn, beet and soybean. Satellite images and basic concepts and techniques of classification are presented in order to emphasize benefits of classification of satellite imagery for presented classification methods.more abstract
Remote sensing, GIS, Agriculture, Classification, Rapideye
Abstract.The phenomenon of drought currently affects large areas all over the world. In 1992, E. Bryant, following a multi-criteria hierarchy, considers the drought as the most important risk phenomenon affecting the planet. Many scientific studies and research have as main issue this phenomenon in different regions of the world (Assessment of the Regional Impact of Droughts in Europe, 2001, Sectoral Impacts of Drought and Climate Change, 2008, Evaluation of Arizona Drought Watch: The State's Drought Impacts Reporting System, 2009, State Drought Planning in the Western U.S.A. Multi-RISA-Agency-NIDIS Collaboration, 2010). The specialists say droughts and phenomena (aridity and desertification) generated by them are based, in addition to changes in the general circulation of the atmosphere caused by increased greenhouse effect and anthropogenic causes, due to wasteful use, deforestation and changes in landscape, with negative effects on the water balance. Destructive impact of droughts and growing area of their production, comprising one quarter of the total land surface of the Earth, make the phenomenon to be considered, after pollution, the environmental risk with the largest amplitude and stability. Studies and reports elaborated by specialized international institutions and also from Romania proved that some regions of our country are affected by drought, that, on extended periods, lead to aridisation processes lack of vegetation, and in some areas, even to desertification but not Sahara type (DRAGOTĂ, 2006).more abstract
analyse, drought, west of Romania
POTASSIUM IN SOIL – PLANT – HUMAN SYSTEM pag. 47-52Isidora RADULOV1, Adina BERBECEA1, F. IMBREA1, Alina LATO1, F. CRISTA1, P. MERGHEŞ1
Abstract. Like nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium is major nutrition`s element contributing to large, steady and high quality crops. In combinations, potassium is widely spread both in the earth crust and in living organisms, more in plants, less in animals. Justus von Liebig was first to asses the importance of potassium in plants in the year 1840; Sidney Ringer did the same in animal species in 1888. In the soil potassium takes form which are partialy soluble and less accesible to plants but also forms which are soluble in water and easy for plants to reach to. The relation between these forms depens on the nature of the clay mineral, the clay percentage, the soil pH. Potassium is indinspensible in the life of plants. It has multiple role which is influenced by the interaction between the plant, the soil and the climatic condition, this is why decoding the specific work mechanism is so difficult. In human body, potassium is one of the most important minerals. It is the one of the main electrolytes alongside sodium and chlorine. Potassium is important in the normal development and growing of the muscles and because of his esential in the functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular systems and can be easily eliminated in diuretic therapies, daily potassium intake are neccesary.more abstract
Key words: potassium, nutrition, soil, plant, human
This paper presents one of active remote sensing technology, based on the use of electromagnetic waves from the microwave frequency range - Ground Penetrating Radar scanning technology (GPR). GPR technology is classified as near surface sensor radar scanning technology. From the point of the usage of GPR technology, where the antenna is close to, or in contact with the surface layer, the application is based on the analysis of both geometric and general characteristics of underground soil layers to a depth of 10m. Using a comparative analysis through the most important examples, a common area of GPR application in the form of complex, composite technologies is defined.more abstract
GPR technology, soil classification, volumetric moisture content.
The need for properly maintained geospatial data has imposed the development of spatial data infrastructure at national, regional and global level. National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) reduces redundancy and allows for easy access, participation and sharing of spatial data on the principles of interoperability. Given the great importance of land and soil, it is necessary to effectively organize agricultural records and that they contain well-structured data. Agricultural data should be well organized, and the data should be well structured so that interoperable systems can be realized, in order to become part of the national geospatial data infrastructure. Data model for GIS in agriculture should be based on Land Parcel Information System (LPIS), as well as on the recommendations of the INSPIRE Directive and the relevant legislation. Many different applications can be implemented for this data model, among them is application for advisory service. Service oriented architecture (SOA) is proposed architecture for this solution.more abstract
data model, INSPIRE, LPIS, agriculture, advisory service
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION ON DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.) YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS pag. 68-78Pavol SLAMKA, Eva HANÁČKOVÁ
On the course of three vegetation periods 2009/2010-2010/2011-2011/2012 the effect of applied mineral fertilizers and post harvest residues of precrop of common pea (Pisum sativum L.) on yields and content of crude protein in grain of winter wheat (variety Istrodur) was investigated. Field experiment was established at the experimental site of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. Under the conditions of organic fertilizers deficit the primary aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of post harvest residues (as alternative source of organic matter) on uptake of nutrients by aboveground phytomas, balance of nutrients and energetical effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers. There were examined four treatments of fertilization in the experiment: 0 – unfertilized control, PZ – post harvest residues of precrop incorporated into soil by ploughing, PH – rational fertilization with mineral fertilizers based on soil and plant analyses, PH+PZ – rational fertilization with mineral fertilizers + incorporation of precrop postharvest residues into soil. Grain yields were highly significantly influenced by experimental year and ferttilization, respectively. On the average of three experimental years the highest yield of grain (4.63 t.ha-1) was gained in treatment fertilized by mineral fertilizers. Incorporation of post harvest residues into soil (treatment PZ and PH+PZ) decreased the average grain yields to 3.88 and 3.99 t.ha-1, respectively which were lower ones in comparison to control unfertilized treatment. There was found out high significant correlation between nutrients uptake by aboveground phytomass and grain yield (r = 0,8766xxx). Energetical effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers achieved value E = 4.65 on the average of experimental years and fertilization treatments. The highest energetical effectiveness was calculated in treatment PH (E = 6.2)in year 2011. The highest average content of crude protein in grain (11.81%) was determined in treatment PH+PZ and the highest production of crude protein per hectare (544 kg) in treatment fertilized by mineral fertilizers. Rational fertilization with mineral fertilizers in combination with pea post-harvest and root residues ploughing down into soil represents treatment which is getting closest to the sustainable farming on soil. On the average of three experimental years balance surplus of nitrogen was low (10.3 kg.ha-1.yr-1), phosphorus medium (18.4 kg.ha-1.yr-1) and potassium high (51.7 kg.ha-1.yr-1). Decrease of potassium inputs into soil through the mineral fertilization application in year 2012 seems to be very effective measure for reducing high balance surplus of potassium in treatment PH+PZ.more abstract
post-harvest residues, mineral fertilization, grain yield, crude protein, balance of nutrients
EFFECT OF UREA CONTAINING INHIBITORS ON NITRATE PORTION IN SOIL AND GRAIN YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) pag. 79-89Pavol SLAMKA, Otto LOŽEK, Eva HANÁČKOVÁ
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of urea containing inhibitor of nitrification (Dicyandiamide, DCD) or inhibitor of urease (1, 2, 4 Triazole) or both on nitrate nitrogen ratio of mineral nitrogen content in soil in 4-year small-plot experiment with winter wheat (variety ´Venistar´ ) on heavy brownsoil. Effect of inhibitors was evaluated as N-NO3-/ Nmin ratio in respective soil profiles. Total dose of nitrogen (140 kg.ha-1) was applied in the form of urea at one shot (with inhibitors) or split to two (with inhibitors) or three partial rates (without inhibitors) in crucial growth stages of wheat. Soil samples were taken from the soil profiles of 0.0-0.30 m, 0.30-0.60 m and 0.60-0.90 m, respectively. Also yield of grain of wheat and natural effectiveness of fertilization were assessed. Achieved results indicate that application of inhibitors contained in urea significantly reduced N-NO3-/ Nmin ratio in soil by 11.7% (urea+inhibitor of nitrification), 10.8% (urea+both inhibitors) and 9.4% (urea+inhibitor of urease) in comparison to urea applied without inhibitors. Adverse effect of applied inhibitors on the winter wheat grain yield was not found out. These results suggest that the both examined inhibitors contained in urea fertilizer have a potential to reduce portion of nitrates on mineral nitrogen content in soil. The highest coefficient of natural effectiveness of fertilization was achieved in treatment fertilized with urea containing both inhibitors (6.860), that is there was created 6.860 kg of wheat grain per each kilogramme of applied fertilizer nitrogen in this treatment. It was owing to the fact that urea with inhibitors was applied at one shot without splitting to partial doses during growing season in comparison to application of pure urea at which the same total dose of nitrogen was split to three partial doses. Both urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors can be tools to manage N loss profitably in today’s economic climate.more abstract
ammonia, growth stage, nitrification, split application, urea, urease
HARNESSING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES BY INTERACTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES IN SPECIALTY CLASSES pag. 90-95Viorica BOACĂ, Codruţa GAVRILĂ, Alina Lidia MĂRGHITAN
Abstract. Starting from the idea that performance in learning depends on motivation and the degree of stimulation each activity offers, we must provide our students with a large range of experiences, in such a way as to include those that will ensure their efficient learning, suitable for their dominant intelligence or intelligences. According to the theory of multiple intelligences, each individual possesses at least nine different intelligences, with different ways of learning and particular ways of expressing the knowledge they accumulate. Each man is a unique combination of abilities in various degrees of development and manifestation. Therefore, teachers should take these differences between their students into consideration and may choose to treat them differently in the teaching – learning – assessing process. For this reason, the present paper aims at analysing some aspects regarding ways to identify behaviours specific for different types of intelligence by systematic observation and also ways to stimulate multiple intelligences by making use of interactive teaching methods.more abstract
Keywords: theory of multiple intelligences; interactive teaching; education process.
STUDY REGARDING THE NITROGEN DOSES NECCESARIES FOR AUTUMN AND SPRING CROPS IN BANAT PLAIN pag. 96-101Alina LAȚO, Isidora RADULOV, F. CRISTA, L. NIȚĂ, K. LAȚO, Adina BERBECEA, M. BOLDEA
The paper presents the doses of nitrogen necessaries for main autumn and spring crops in Banat Plain area. The data presented in this study were received from many farmers in the studied area. The most important crops in Banat Plain are: wheat, maize, sun-flower and barley, they were finding cultivated in the largest surfaces by local farmers. To establish the nitrogen doses it was taken into account the following parameters: expected yield in function of the specific consumption of the plant, the crop cultivated before, quality classes of arable lands and nitrogen uptake in the soil by manure. It might be find some errors in nitrogen doses mathematical account because not all the farmers form the studied area rapport their data. The nitrogen doses are expressed in kilogram active substance per year, for each crop. The largest doses of nitrogen were calculated for maize crop and the smallest for sun-flower crop. The obtained data after this research might be used in agronomical practice.more abstract
autumn crops, spring crops, nitrogen doses
AGROECOSYSTEMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES IN THE NATURE RESERVE ALLUVIUM ŽITAVYJaroslav NOSKOVIČ, Alena RAKOVSKÁ, Jana PORHAJAŠOVÁ, Terézia ČERYOVÁ
Agricultural activity permanently affected ecosystems – agroecosystems are particularly in terms of ensuring of nutrition for human society, very important functional units of the biosphere. Represent economically important organisms and their environment. Very often are surrounded by natural ecosystems, which are usually very closely linked. Although their relationship is two-sided, agroecosystems can induce not only reduce the heterogeneity of the country but also may affect the biodiversity of the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic habitats. In order to assess the impact of agricultural activities on the water quality characteristics, as well as on the biodiversity and the structure of communities of aquatic organisms, we carried out sampling of water from six sampling sites at regular quarterly intervals, 24 water samples was collected, in the year 2007 in the Nnature reserve Alluvium Žitavy located in the southwestern part of Slovak Republic, in the geomorphologic unit of Podunajská rovina,. As the basic biological material we used organisms of macrozoobenthos living at the bottom of the aquatic habitats. This group of individuals is an important indicator of water quality, based on their species and numerical representation can be evaluated the water quality of monitored biotopes. Analysis of samples of water we obtained 9920 individuals, deterministic as 110 species of fourteen systematic groups of invertebrates. Of them, the largest proportion in the structure of benthic macrozoobenthos had Gastropoda (24.01%), Isopoda (13.47%), Ephemeroptera (10.60%), Heteroptera (9.33%), Coleoptera (8.49%), individuals of family Chironomidae (8.25%) and Diptera(7,40%). The species with the smallest proportion in the structure of zoobenthos of monitored wetlands (ranging from 1.61% to 4.32%) included representatives of systematic groups Turbellaria, Odonata, Hirudinea, Trichoptera, Amphipoda, Bivalvia and Oligochaeta. The most of species that formed monitored community of aquatic organisms belongs to the good indicators of water quality. Therefore, not only based on the structure of community of macrozoobenthos but also based on the calculated saprobic index (Si), the water which is used by this community as their habitat corresponds to β-mezosaprobic zone, slightly polluted water. Between sampling sites the significant differences in the quality and purity of water was recorded, even not only in the numerous represented of benthic fauna. Some differences in representation of species were observed, because each of the representatives of zoobenthos has different requirements for water quality characteristics. Despite this, agriculture fertilizer application, spillage of the oil substances and their floating could result in deterioration of water quality of monitoring wetlands and thus the structure and biodiversity of benthic invertebrates.more abstract
Slovak Republic, Alluvium Žitavy, agroecosystems, water, zoobenthos